Known interactions

2-Amino-2-Deoxyglucose, 24-alpha-ethylcholestanol, 3-beta,5-alpha-stigmastan-3-ol, Abciximab Injection, Acanthopanax senticosus, Acarbose, Acetohexamide, Achillea, Achillea millefolium, Ackerkraut, Actoplus Met, Actos, African Pepper, Agathosma betulina, Agenerase, Agenerase Oral Solution, Aggrastat, Agrimonia, Agrimonia eupatoria, Agrimony, Agrylin, Airelle, Alant, Alfalfa, Alhova, Altamisa, Amachazuru, Amaryl, American Cranberry, American Ginseng, Amorphophallus konjac, Amprenavir, Amprenavir Oral Solution, Anagrelide, Anchi, Angelica polymorpha, Angelica sinensis, Anthemis nobilis, Apidra, Apricot Vine, Arandano, Ardeparin Sodium Injection--No longer available, Armoracia rusticana, Arnica, Arnica montana, Asian Ginseng, Aspirin and Carisoprodol, Aspirin, Caffeine and Dihydrocodeine, Avandamet, Avandia, Awa, Azucacaa, Baikal Scullcap, Baikal Skullcap Root, Bal, Barley, Barley Grass, Barosma betulina, Basket Willow, Bdellium, Bee Bread, Beta-sitostanol, Bilberry, Bird Pepper, Bird's Foot, Black ginger, Black Psyllium, Blond Psyllium, Bloodwort, Blowball, Bol, Borage, Borago officinalis, Bramhi, Bridewort, Bucco, Buchu, Buffered Aspirin and Pravastatin, Bugloss, Buku, Cabbage Palm, Cacari, Caffeine, Aspirin and Dihydrocodeine, Camocamo, Camu-camu, Canadian Ginseng, Canker Wort, Canton ginger, Capim Doce, Capsicum, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Carica papaya, Carisoprodol Compound, Centella asiatica, Chamomile, Chili Pepper, Chinese Angelica, Chinese Ginseng, Chinese Sage, Chitosamine, Chlorpropamide, Chondroitin, Chondroitin Sulfate, Chroma-Pak injection, Chromic Chloride injection, Chromium, Chromium 3, Chromium Acetate, Chromium Chloride, Chromium chloride injection, Chromium injection, Chromium Picolinate, Chrysanthemum parthenium, Church Steeples, Ci Wu Jia, Cilostazol, Clopidogrel, Co Q 10, Cochin ginger, Cochlearia armoracia, Cocklebur, Coenzyme Q-10, Commiphora molmol, Commiphora myrrha, Common Borage, Common Bugloss, Common ginger, Corona de Cristo, Coumadin, Coumadin Injection, Cow Clover, Crack Willow, Cranberry, Crixivan, Curcuma, Curcuma species, Cyclosporine, Cyclosporine Injection, Cyclosporine Ophthalmic, Cyclosporine Oral Solution, Daidzein, Dalteparin Injection, Damiana, Danaparoid Injection, Dandelion, Danggui, Danshen, Delavirdine, Devil's Bush, Devil's Claw, Devil's Leaf, Devil's Tongue, Diabeta, Diabinese, Dihydro-beta-sitosterol, Dihydrocodeine, Aspirin and Caffeine, Diosma, Dipyridamole, Dipyridamole Injection, Dong Quai, Dropwort, Drospirenone and Ethinyl Estradiol, Dyeberry, Dymelor, Efavirenz, Elecampane, Elephant-foot Yam, Eleuthero, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Elf Dock, Elfwort, Enebro, Enoxaparin Injection, Eptifibatide, Erva Doce, Etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring, European Blueberry, Evening Primrose, Fan Palm, Featherfew, Fenugreek, Feuille de Luzerna, Fever Plant, Feverfew, Filipendula ulmaria, Five Fingers, Flaxseed, Flaxseed oil, Flea Seed, Flirtwort, Fortamet, Fortovase, Fragmin, Fucostanol, Funffing, Gan Cao, Garden ginger, Ge Gen, Genevrier, Gengraf, Gengraf Solution, Genuine chamomile, German Chamomile, German Mustard, Ginepro, Gingembre, Ginger, Ginkgo, Ginkgo Biloba, Ginseng, American, Ginseng, Panax, Glimepiride, Glipizide, Glipizide and Metformin, Glipizide Extended-Release, Glucomannan, Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glucosamine, Glucosamine Hydrochloride, Glucosamine Sulfate, Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL, Glucovance, Glyburide, Glyburide and Metformin, Glycine max, Glycine soja, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glynase, Glyset, Goat's Pod, Gotu Kola, Graine de lin, Granadilla, Grape Seed, Grape Seed Extract, Grapple Plant, Great Raifort, Greek Clover, Greek Hay, Green Arrow, Guavaberry, Guggal Resin, Guigai, Gum Myrrh, Gurmar, Gymnema sylvestre, Gynostemma, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Harpagophytum procumbens, Heerabol, Heparin Injection, Herba de la pastora, Herbe de Saint-Guillaume, Hordeum vulgare, Horse Chestnut, Horse Radish, Horse-elder, Horseheal, Horseradish, Hu Lu Ba, Huang Ken, Huang Qin, Huckleberry, Humalog, Humalog Mix 75/25, Humulin, Humulin 50/50, Humulin 70/30, Hungarian chamomile, Hwanggum, Hydrocotyle asiatica, Iletin II, Iletin II Mixed, Imber, Indian Pennywort, Indian Saffron, Indinavir, Innohep, Insulin - Mixed, Insulin glulisine, Insulin injection, Insulin Lispro, Integrilin, Inula helenium, Invirase, Ipe Roxo, Ipes, Irish Daisy, Isphagula, Jamaican ginger, Jantoven, Japanese Arrowroot, Japanese Ginseng, Japanese Silver Apricot, Jiaogulan, Juniper, Juniperus communis, Kaa Jhee, Kaletra, Kaletra Solution, Kava, Kava-Kava, Kawa, Kew, Kew Tree, Konjac, Konjac Mannan, Konnyaku, Korean Ginseng, Kudzu, Kuli, Lady of the Meadow, Lapacho, Leinsamen, Leopard's Bane, Leotodon taraxacum, Licorice, Linseed, Linseed oil, Lint bells, Linum, Lion's Tooth, Liquorice, Liverwort, Lopinavir and Ritonavir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir Oral Solution, Lovenox, Lucerne, Lunelle, Mai Ya, Maidenhair Tree, Marsh Penny, Matricaria chamomilla, Maypop, MEL, Meadow Clover, Meadowsweet, Medicago, Medicago sativa, Medroxyprogesterone acetate and Estradiol cypionate injection, Melatonin, Merasingi, Metaglip, Metformin, Metformin Extended-Release, Metformin Oral Solution, Methi, Mexican Chillies, Mexican damiana, Micronase, Miglitol, Milfoil, Miracle Grass, Mitoquinone, Mizibcoc, MLT, Mo Yao, Mossberry, Mountain Radish, Mountain Snuff, Mountain Tobacco, Muscat, Myrrh, N-acetyl Glucosamine, N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, Nelfinavir, Nelfinavir Solution, Neoral, Neoral Injection, Neoral Solution, Nettle, Nettle Tops, Nevirapine, Nevirapine Oral Suspension, Ninjin, Nopal, Normiflo - No longer available, North American Ginseng, Norvir, Norvir Oral Solution, Nosebleed Plant, NovoLog Mix, Novolin, Novolin 70/30, NuvaRing, OEP, Oenothera species, Ogon, Old woman's broom, Oleae europaea, Oleae folium, Oleum olivae, Olive Leaf, Olive Oil, Olivier, Opopanax, Opuntia species, Orgaran, Oriental Ginseng, Orinase, Ox's Tongue, Panax Ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, Panax schinseng, Papain, Paprika, Passiflora incarnata, Passion Flower, Passion Vine, Pau D'arco, Pearl Barley, Pepperrot, Persantine, Persantine Injection, Phytostanol, Pioglitazone, Pioglitazone and Metformin, Piper methysticum, Plant Stanol, Plant Stanol Esters, Plantago species, Plantain Seed, Plavix, Pletal, Prandin, Pravigard PAC, Precose, Prickly Pear Cactus, Psyllium Seed, Pueraria, Pueraria lobata, Pueraria montana, Pueraria thunbergiana, Puffball, Pulmonaria Officinalis, Purple Clover, Purple Medick, Pushkarmoola, Pyrethrum parthenium, Q 10, Queen of the Meadow, Radix Salvia, Red Berry, Red Clover, Red Cole, Red Ginseng, Red Pepper, Red Sage, Red Wine Extract, Ren Shen, ReoPro, Repaglinide, Rescriptor, Restasis, Riomet, Ritonavir, Ritonavir Oral Solution, Roman Chamomile, Roman Nettle, Rosiglitazone, Rosiglitazone and Metformin, Rumberry, Russian Root, Sabal, Sabal serrulata, Salix, Salix alba, Salix fragilis, Salix purpurea, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Salvia Root, Sandimmune, Sandimmune Injection, Sandimmune Solution, Saquinavir, Saw Palmetto, Scabwort, Scotch Barley, Scrub Palm, Scute, Scutellaria baicalensis, Seng, Serenoa, Serenoa repens, Shigoka, Siberian Ginseng, Snake Plant, Sodol Compound, Soma Compound, Southern Ginseng, Soy, Soya, Soybeans, Spirea, Spirea ulmaria, Stanol, Starflower, Staunch Weed, Stevia, Stevia eupatorium, Stevia rebaudiana, Stickwort, Stigmastanol, Stinging Nettle, Stingnose, Sun Drop, Sustiva, Sweet Herb, Sweet Oil, Sweet Root, Sweetleaf, Synalgos-DC, Tabasco Pepper, Tabebuia species, Taheebo, Taiga, Tanacetum parthenium, Tang-Kuei, Taraxacum officinale, Ten Shen, Thorny Pepperbush, Thousand-Leaf, Ticlid, Ticlopidine, Tinzaparin, Tirofiban, Tolazamide, Tolbutamide, Tolinase, Tonga, Touch-Me-Not, Trefoil, Trifolium pratense, Trigonella, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Trivalent Chromium, Trumpet Bush, Turmeric, Turnera diffusa, Ubidecarenone, Ubiquinone, Urtica species, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium species, Vegetable pepsin, Velosulin, Velvet Dock, Viracept, Viracept Solution, Viramune, Viramune Suspension, Vitamin Q, Vitis pentaphyllum, Vitis vinifera, Wacholder, Warfarin, Warfarin injection, Water Lemon, White Willow, Whortleberry, Wild Chamomile, Wild Clover, Wild Endive, Wild Pepper, Wild Quinine, Wild Sunflower, Wineberry, Winterlein, Wogon, Wolf's Bane, Wolfbane, Wood Spider, Wound Wort, Xianxao, Yagona, Yarrow, Yarroway, Yasmin, Yege, Yellow Starwort, Yerba Dulce, Yinhsing, Zanzibar Pepper, Zingiber officinale.

What we now about Garlic

Scientific Name: Garlic

Other Names: Allium, Allium sativum, Rustic Treacle, Stinking Rose

Who is this for?

Note: Much of garlic's reputation is based on observation and tradition. While numerous animal and human studies have been carried out to test garlic's effectiveness for a wide range of health conditions, many of the studies have been small and short in duration. Not all of the studies used standardized garlic products or similar dosing regimens. Therefore, many of the study results are unreliable. However, taking garlic appears to have few if any serious negative effects and it may be a useful addition to conventional treatments for certain conditions.

In the United States, oral garlic supplements are sold mainly to reduce high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Garlic's possible positive effect on cholesterol levels — as seen in multiple small studies done mostly in the 1970s and 1980s — has not been substantiated by more recent research. However, garlic does seem to be better than placebo (sugar pills with no medical effectiveness) for lowering high blood levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides. Garlic does not lower blood cholesterol to the same extent achieved by dietary changes plus prescription drugs known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (HMGs), Also called statins, HMGs include Lipitor, Lescol, lovastatin, Pravachol, and Zocor. In general, these medications in combination with low-fat diets may produce a 28% to 60% reduction in total cholesterol. Garlic may be responsible for cholesterol reductions in the 6% to 12% range. Additionally, several studies appear to show that garlic's cholesterol-lowering effects may be only short-term. Lower cholesterol seen after one month of treatment, may return to near pre-treatment levels after 6 to 12 months of garlic therapy. One study of 30 children with an inherited type of high cholesterol known as familial hypercholesterolemia found no effect from garlic on their cholesterol levels.

While garlic also appears to have a small effect on lowering blood pressure, overall results from a number of studies were generally not considered to be significant. On average, individuals who participated in several small clinical trials of a powdered garlic product had blood pressure reductions of 5% to 7% more than other participants who took an inactive placebo. It is believed that garlic may relax blood vessels, causing them to widen and allowing blood to flow more easily. In addition, the thickness of the blood may be reduced by taking garlic, which may block the body's production of thromboxane, a chemical involved in blood clotting and blood vessel tightening.

Garlic has been proved to reduce the stickiness of platelets. Platelets are blood components that are partly responsible for forming atherosclerotic plaques — the cholesterol-associated deposits that can block arteries. In several studies conducted in laboratory animals garlic appeared to stop or delay the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Two separate human studies that each lasted for four years, also showed that existing plaques were reduced in size by garlic supplementation.

Some garlic preparations have also been promoted for boosting immune function. Garlic has been shown in laboratory research to increase blood levels of at least two enzymes that have antioxidant properties. Antioxidants are thought to protect body cells from damage caused by a chemical process called oxidation. In one study, seven people living with AIDS showed improvements in natural immune function after 12 weeks of garlic supplementation. No further human studies have been published to support these results, although some animal research seems to confirm them. Extensive research, conducted mostly in Asia, has related high intakes of raw and/or cooked garlic and similar plant foods with a lower incidence of colorectal, esophageal, and stomach cancers. One five-year observational study that followed more than 40,000 U. S. women between the ages of 55 and 69, also found that the women who used a lot of garlic in food preparation were less likely to have colon cancer than the women who did not cook with garlic. However, a study conducted over a three-year period in the Netherlands, did not show a reduction in breast, colon, lung, or rectal cancers among people who consumed garlic as compared with those who did not. Much more research is needed to determine whether garlic can protect against prostate cancer.

Garlic has long been known to be anti-infective. Laboratory studies show that it kills or damages a wide range of bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and viruses. The blood levels needed to control or kill most internal infective agents, however, may be too high to achieve by taking garlic orally. It may be effective, though, for controlling infective agents on the skin's surface. Several studies carried out in humans show that a compound extracted from garlic is effective and safe for application on fungal infections such as athlete's foot and ringworm in many areas of the world, garlic oil is also applied to repel biting insects.

When should I be careful taking it?

Garlic may interfere with blood clotting. Therefore, individuals who have hemophilia or other bleeding disorders should avoid eating or using large amounts of garlic.


Because the chemicals in garlic may cause stomach irritation, individuals with stomach ulcers or sensitive stomachs should be careful about eating or swallowing garlic.

Individuals who are allergic to other members of the lily family of plants, which also includes onions and flowers such as crocus, hyacinth, lilies, and tulips; may also be sensitive to garlic. For susceptible individuals, touching garlic plants or taking garlic supplements may result in allergic responses such as upset stomach or skin rash.

Garlic is known to enter both amniotic fluid (the liquid that surrounds a developing fetus) and breast milk. Although the taste and smell of these liquids may change, no negative effects have been reported for the fetus or infant whose mother uses garlic supplements.

What side effects should I watch for?

No major side effects have been reported with the use of garlic in recommended amounts for food or as an herbal remedy. However, garlic does reduce the blood's ability to clot, so ingesting large amounts of it may cause excessive bleeding in combination with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs.

Some cases of asthma have been reported in people who process garlic. Other case reports attribute allergic symptoms such as irritated eyes, runny nose, and itching skin to working with large amounts of garlic for extended times. In very rare instances, garlic allergy is thought to have caused sudden and serious swelling, shortness of breath, and loss of consciousness.

Fresh garlic applied to the skin could result in blistering, chemical burns, or dermatitis. The chemicals that give garlic its smell may also irritate or burn the skin, especially when fresh garlic is allowed to stay on the skin for prolonged periods of time or when it is covered with a waterproof barrier such as a plastic bandage. Cases of serious burns have been reported by individuals who have no known sensitivities to garlic.

Other side effects associated with the oral use of garlic include:

  • Breath and/or body odor
  • Diarrhea
  • Gas
  • Heartburn
  • Mouth irritation
  • Nausea
  • Stomach upset
  • Vomiting

What interactions should I watch for?

Prescription Drugs

In studies and case reports, garlic has been shown to increase the time blood needs to clot. When it is taken with "blood thinners" — antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs, the effect of the drug may be increased, resulting in uncontrolled bleeding.

  • Antiplatelet drugs include Plavix and Ticlid
  • Anticoagulants include heparin and warfarin

When garlic was given to healthy volunteers who were also taking a type of antiviral drug (a protease inhibitor named Fortovase); blood levels of the drug were reduced by about half, making it less effective for controlling HIV. Although garlic's possible effects on other antiviral drugs are unknown, individuals taking any type of antiviral therapy should avoid taking very large amounts of garlic.

A few small studies done in the 1970s seemed to show that garlic reduced blood sugar in laboratory animals. Although no additional studies have documented these results, people taking oral medications or insulin for diabetes should check with their doctors before taking large amounts of garlic.

Because garlic is broken down by certain enzymes in the liver, excessively large amounts of it possibly may interfere with the use of prescription drugs that are processed by the same enzymes. Some of these drugs are:

  • Allergy drugs such as Allegra
  • Antifungal drugs such as itraconazole and ketoconazole
  • Cancer drugs such as etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, or vincristine
  • Drugs for high cholesterol such as lovastatin, Pravachol, and Zocor
  • Oral contraceptives

Non-prescription Drugs

Garlic can reduce the ability of blood to clot after an injury. Aspirin can also delay clotting, so large amounts of garlic should not be taken orally at the same time aspirin is being taken.

Both garlic and acetaminophen are processed by the same set of enzymes in the liver. When they are taken together, large amounts of garlic may interfere with the breakdown of acetaminophen. As a result too much acetaminophen may stay in the blood.


Theoretically, if garlic is used with other herbs that affect blood clotting, bleeding may occur. Some of the most common herbal products that might inhibit blood clotting are:

  • Danshen
  • Devil's Claw
  • Ginger
  • Gingko
  • Ginseng
  • Horse Chestnut
  • Papain
  • Red Clover

Some interactions between herbal products and medications can be more severe than others. The best way for you to avoid harmful interactions is to tell your doctor and/or pharmacist what medications you are currently taking, including any over-the-counter products, vitamins, and herbals.

Should I take it?

Garlic was highly prized in the ancient world—both for flavoring and for medicine. Believed to have originated in eastern Asia, it is now grown and used in nearly every country. It belongs to the same family of aromatic plants as chives, leeks, and onions; flowers such as lilies are also related to garlic. Depending on the species of garlic, plants may be as tall as 3 feet or as small as about half a foot. All garlic plants have long, thin, grass-like leaves that surround a central stem. After white, pink, purple, or reddish flowers bloom during the summer and early fall, a large underground bulb develops. Although the leaves are used as food in some areas of the world, the bulb is the part most used for flavoring and medicines.

Although garlic contains many different chemicals, the sulfur compounds and volatile oils that give garlic its strong smell also account for much of its medicinal value. Also called essential oils, volatile oils possess the characteristic smell and taste of the plant. Volatile oils usually evaporate quickly at room temperature.

Dosage and Administration

Around the world, supplemental garlic is sold in a number of different forms — including capsules, concentrates, extracts, liquids, powders, raw garlic bulbs, and tablets. Fresh garlic juice and syrups made from fresh garlic are used more for medicine in Europe and Asia than in the United States. Some garlic products are aged to reduce odor or to allow the formation of additional chemical compounds. Some reliable evidence suggests that heat may reduce some or all of garlic's effectiveness, so preparations that are manufactured without being heated may retain more of the chemicals that are thought to be beneficial.

In this country, garlic preparations are most available as capsules or tablets made from dried garlic powder or as aged garlic extract. Made by crushing garlic and letting it mature in a cool place for up to 20 months, aged garlic extract has fewer irritating, odor-causing chemicals than fresh garlic. Either dried or aged garlic products are marketed in several strengths and in multiple combinations with other herbal ingredients such as echinacea or ginkgo biloba. Garlic preparations should be standardized to contain between 0.5% and 1.3% of alliin, one of the sulfur compounds in it. Standardization by the manufacturer should assure the same amount of active ingredient in every batch of the commercial preparation. Standardization of herbal products is not required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), so not every product will contain the same amounts of active ingredients.

The recommended supplemental dose of garlic is 600mg to 900mg daily, usually taken in three or four doses during the day. If you choose to take a garlic supplement, follow the directions for the product that you are using. Virtually no limits are placed on the consumption of dietary garlic, however—with reported continual daily amounts of several ounces being common among Asian cultures whose members regularly consume garlic plants as a vegetable.

Fresh garlic varies in the amounts of active ingredients it contains depending on the location and conditions in which it is grown and the way it was processed and stored. For those who prefer using it, one-half to three cloves of raw garlic can be chewed up to three times a day. Cooking may destroy some of the medicinally effective chemicals in garlic, so garlic used in seasoning foods may not be as beneficial to health as commercial supplements or raw garlic.


Some limited clinical evidence seems to show that garlic taken orally can help moderately to reduce high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Less evidence supports its effectiveness in preventing heart disease, enhancing immune function, and protecting against some types of cancer.


Garlic in recommended amounts seems to have few risks. People who have bleeding disorders or who take medications to thin the blood, should be aware that taking large amounts of garlic may further reduce the blood's ability to clot.

Side Effects

In the amounts used in food or recommended medicinal doses, garlic has few side effects. Large amounts, however, have been associated with irritated mouth or stomach. A few people may have asthma or rash from handling the garlic plants for a long time or in large amounts. If it is left in contact with the skin for extended periods of time, garlic may cause irritation or burns.


If it is taken at the same time as drugs or other herbs that "thin the blood"' very large amounts of garlic taken by mouth could increase the amount of time that blood needs to clot. Garlic in high amounts may interfere with some antiviral and antidiabetic medications, as well as with other drugs, such as acetaminophen, that are broken down by the same liver enzymes as garlic. It may increase the activity of drugs that lower blood sugar.


Abdullah T, Kirkpatrick DV, Williams L, Carter J. Garlic as an antimicrobial and immune modulator in AIDS. (abstract no. Th.B.P.304) Proceedings of the International Conference on AIDS. 1989;5:466.

Abebe W. Herbal medications: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 2002;27(6):391-401.

Abdullah TH, Kandil O, Elkadi A, Carter J. Garlic revisited: therapeutic for the major diseases of our times? Journal of the National Medical Association. 1988;80(4):439-445.

Ackermann RT, Mulrow CD, Ramirez G, Gardner CD, Morbidoni L, Lawrence VA. Garlic shows promise for improving some cardiovascular risk factors. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2001;161(6):813-824.

Aggarwal A, Ades PA. Interactions of herbal remedies with prescription cardiovascular medications. Coronary Artery Diseases. 2001;12(7):581-584.

Alder R, Lookinland S, Berry JA, Williams M. A systematic review of the effectiveness of garlic as an anti-hyperlipidemic agent. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners. 2003;15(3):120-129.

Al-Qattan KK, Khan I, Alnaqeeb MA, Ali M. Mechanism of garlic (Allium sativum) induced reduction of hypertension in 2K-1C rats: a possible mediation of Na/H exchanger isoform-1. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 2003;69(4):217-222.

Alvarez MS, Jacobs S, Jiang SB, Brancaccio RR, Soter NA, Cohen DE. Photocontact allergy to diallyl disulfide. American Journal of Contact Dermatitis. 2003;14(3):161-165.

Ameen M, Musthapa MS, Abidi P, Ahmad I, Rahman Q. Garlic attenuates chrysotile-mediated pulmonary toxicity in rats by altering the phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzyme system. Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Toxicology. 2003;17(6):366-371.

Anibarro B, Fontela JL, De La Hoz F. Occupational asthma induced by garlic dust. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 1997;100(6 Pt 1):734-738.

Anim-Nyame N, Sooranna SR, Johnson MR, Gamble J, Steer PJ. Garlic supplementation increases peripheral blood flow: a role for interleukin-6? Journal of Nutrition and Biochemistry. 2004;15(1):30-36.

Anon. Garlic. In: DerMarderosian A, Beutler JA, eds. Facts and Comparisons: The Review of Natural Products. St. Louis, MO, Facts and Comparisons. October 2001.

Argento A, Tiraferri E, Marzaloni M. Oral anticoagulants and medicinal plants. An emerging interaction. [article in Italian]. Annals of Italian Internal Medicine. 2000;15(2):139-143.

Arora RC, Arora S, Gupta RK. The long-term use of garlic in ischemic heart disease — an appraisal. Atherosclerosis. 1981;40(2):175-179.

Auer W, Eiber A, Hertkorn E, et al. Hypertension and hyperlipidaemia: garlic helps in mild cases. British Journal of Clinical Practice. Supplement. 1990;69:3-6.

Balasenthil S, Rao KS, Nagini S. Altered cytokeratin expression during chemoprevention of hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by S-allylcysteine. Polish Journal of Pharmacology. 2003;55(5):793-798.

Baluchnejadmojarad T, Roghani M. Endothelium-dependent and -independent effect of aqueous extract of garlic on vascular reactivity on diabetic rats. Fitoterapia. 2003;74(7-8):630-637.

Baluchnejadmojarad T, Roghani M. Garlic extract attenuates time-dependent changes in the reactivity of isolated aorta in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Life Sciences. 2003;73(18):2281-2289.

Baruchin AM, Sagi A, Yoffe B, Ronen M. Garlic burns. Burns. 2001;27(7):781-782.

Berthold HK, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1998;279(23):1900-1902.

Bordia A, Bansal HC, Arora SK, Singh SV. Effect of the essential oils of garlic and onion on alimentary hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis. 1975;21(1):15-19.

Borek C. Antioxidant health effects of aged garlic extract. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(Suppl 3):1010S-1015S.

Chang HS, Yamato O, Sakai Y, Yamasaki M, Maede Y. Acceleration of superoxide generation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibition of platelet aggregation by alk(en)yl thiosulfates derived from onion and garlic in dogs and humans. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. 2004;70(1):77-83.

Chaudhuri BN, Mukherjee SK, Mongia SS, Chakravarty SK. Hypolipidemic effect of garlic and thyroid function. Biomedica Biochimica Acta. 1984;43(7):1045-1047.

Chetty KN, Calahan L, Harris KC, Dorsey W, Hill D, Chetty S, Jain SK. Garlic attenuates hypercholesterolemic risk factors in olive oil fed rats and high cholesterol fed rats. Pathophysiology. 2003;9(3):127-132.

Chung JG, Lu HF, Yeh CC, Cheng KC, Lin SS, Lee JH. Inhibition of N-acetyltransferase activity and gene expression in human colon cancer cell lines by diallyl sulfide. Food Chemistry and Toxicology. 2004;42(2):201-208.

Consumer Labs. Product review: Garlic supplements. 2002. Available at: Accessed March 25, 2004.

Dausch JG, Nixon DW. Garlic: a review of its relationship to malignant disease. Preventive Medicine. 1990;19(3):346-361.

Dillon SA, Burmi RS, Lowe GM, Billington D, Rahman K. Antioxidant properties of aged garlic extract: an in vitro study incorporating human low density lipoprotein. Life Sciences. 2003;72(14):1583-1594.

Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. A prospective cohort study on the relationship between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and the risk of colorectal carcinoma in The Netherlands. Carcinogenesis. 1996;17(3):477-484.

Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. A prospective cohort study on Allium vegetable consumption, garlic supplement use, and the risk of lung carcinoma in The Netherlands. Cancer Research. 1994;54(23):6148-6153.

Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. Allium vegetable consumption, garlic supplement intake, and female breast carcinoma incidence. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 1995;33(2):163-170.

Elkayam A, Mirelman D, Peleg E, et al. The effects of allicin on weight in fructose-induced hyperinsulinemic, hyperlipidemic, hypertensive rats. American Journal of Hypertension. 2003;16(12):1053-1056.

Ernst E. Cardiovascular effects of garlic (Allium sativum): a review. Pharmacotherapeutica. 1987;5(2):83-89.

Fleischauer AT, Arab L. Garlic and cancer: a critical review of the epidemiologic literature. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(Suppl 3):1032S-1040S.

Fleischauer AT, Poole C, Arab L. Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2000;72(4):1047-1052.

Fugh-Berman A. Herbs and dietary supplements in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Preventive Cardiology. 2000;3(1):24-32.

Gadkari JV, Joshi VD. Effect of ingestion of raw garlic on serum cholesterol level, clotting time and fibrinolytic activity in normal subjects. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine. 1991;37(3):128-131.

Gao CM, Takezaki T, Ding JH, Li MS, Tajima K. Protective effect of allium vegetables against both esophageal and stomach cancer: a simultaneous cross-referent study of a high-epidemic area in Jiangsu Province, China. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research. 1999;90(6):614-621.

Gardner CD, Chatterjee LM, Carkson JJ. The effect of a garlic preparation on plasma lipid levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults. Atherosclerosis. 2001;154(1):213-220.

Gardner CD, Messina M, Lawson LD, Farquhar JW. Soy, garlic, and ginkgo biloba: their potential role in cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. Current Atherosclerosis Reports. 2003;5(6):468-475.

Green M, Thomas R, Gued L, Sadrud-Din S. Inhibition of DES-induced DNA adducts by diallyl sulfide: implications in liver cancer prevention. Oncology Reports. 2003;10(3):767-771.

Grieve M. Garlic. In: A Modern Herbal. New York: Dover Publishers, 1971. Available at: Posted 1995. Accessed December 19, 2002.

Groppo FC, Ramacciato JC, Simoes RP, Florio FM, Sartoratto A. Antimicrobial activity of garlic, tea tree oil, and chlorhexidine against oral microorganisms. International Dental Journal. 2002;52(6):433-437.

Harenberg J, Giese C, Zimmermann R. Effect of dried garlic on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Atherosclerosis. 1988;74(3):247-249.

Harris JC, Cottrell SL, Plummer S, Lloyd D. Antimicrobial properties of Allium sativa (garlic). Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2001;57(3):282-286.

Hassan ZM, Yaraee R, Zare N, Ghazanfari T, Sarraf Nejad AH, Nazori B. Immunomodulatory affect of R10 fraction of garlic extract on natural killer activity. International Immunopharmacology. 2003;3(10-11):1483-1489.

Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. American Journal of Health-Systems Pharmacists. 2000;57(13):1221-1227.

Hoshino T, Kashimoto N, Kasuga S. Effects of garlic preparations on the gastrointestinal mucosa. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(Suppl 3):1109S-1113S.

Ioannides C. Pharmacokinetic interactions between herbal remedies and medicinal drugs. Xenobiotica. 2002;32(6):451-478.

Isaachsohn JL, Moser M, Stein EA, et al. Garlic powder and plasma lipids and lipoproteins: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine. 1998;158(11):1189-1194.

Izzo AA, Ernst E. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review. Drugs. 2001;61(15):2163-2175.

Jain AK, Vargas R, Gotzkowsky S, McMahon FG. Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study. American Journal of Medicine. 1993;94(6):632-635.

Jappe U, Bonnekoh B, Hausen BM, Gollnick H. Garlic-related dermatoses: case report and review of the literature. American Journal of Contact Dermatology. 1999;10(1):37-39.

Jellin JM, Gregory P, Batz F, Hitchens K, et al, eds. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 3rd Edition. Stockton CA: Therapeutic Research Facility, 2000.

Kao SH, Hsu CH, Su SN, et al. Identification and immunologic characterization of an allergen, alliin lyase, from garlic (Allium sativum). Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2004;113(1):161-168.

Kasuga S, Uda N, Kyo E, Ushijima M, Morihara N, Itakura Y. Pharmacologic activities of aged garlic extract in comparison with other garlic preparations. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(Suppl 3):1080S-1084S.

Kendler BS. Garlic (Allium sativa) and onion (Allium cepa): a review of their relationship to cardiovascular disease. Preventive Medicine. 1987;16(5):670-685.

Khosla P, Karan RS, Bhargava VK. Effect of garlic oil on ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. Phytotherapy Research. 2004;18(1):87-91.

Kleijen J, Knipschild P, ter Rait G. Garlic, onions and cardiovascular risk factors. A review of the evidence from human experiments with emphasis on commercially available preparations. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1989;28(5):535-544.

Koscielny J, Klussendorf D, Latza R, et al. The antiatherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum. Atherosclerosis. 2000;150(2):437-438.

Kyo E, Uda N, Kasuga S, Itakura Y. Immonumodulatory effects of aged garlic extract. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(Suppl 3):1075S-1079S.

Lachter J, Babich JP, Brookman JC, Factor AY. Garlic: a way out of work. Military Medicine. 2003;168(6):499-500.

Lamm DL, Riggs DR. Enhanced immunocompetence by garlic: role in bladder cancer and other malignancies. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(Suppl 3):1067S-1070S.

Lamm DL, Riggs DR. The potential application of Allium sativum (garlic) for the treatment of bladder cancer. Urology Clinics of North America. 2000;27(1):157-162.

Ledezma E, DeSousa L, Jorquera A, et al. Efficacy of ajoene, an organosulphur derived from garlic, in the short-term therapy of tinea pedis. Mycoses. 1996;39(9-10):393-395.

Ledezma E, Lopez JC, Marin P, et al. Ajoene in the topical short-term treatment of tinea cruris and tinea corporis in humans. Randomized comparative study with terbinafine. Arzneimittelforschung. 1999;49(6):544-547.

Ledezma E, Marcano K, Jorquera A, et al. Efficacy of ajoene in the treatment of tinea pedis: a double-blind and comparative study with terbinafine. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2000;43(5 Pt 1):829-832.

Lemiere C, Cartier A, Lehrer SB, Malo JL. Occupational asthma caused by aromatic herbs. Allergy. 1996;51(9):647-649.

Liu ZF, Fang F, Dong YS, Li G, Zhen H. Experimental study on the prevention and treatment of murine cytomegalovirus hepatitis by using allitridin. Antiviral Research. 2004;61(2):125-128.

Lohani M, Yadav S, Schiffmann D, Rahman Q. Diallylsulfide attenuates asbestos-induced genotoxicity. Toxicology Letter. 2003;143(1):45-50.

Luley C, Lehmann-Leo W, Moller B, Martin T, Schwartzkopff W. Lack of efficacy of dried garlic in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Arzneimittelforschung. 1986;36(4):766-768.

Mader FH. Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung. 1990;40(10):1111-1116.

Maldonado PD, Barrera D, Medina-Campos ON, Hernandez-Pando R, Ibarra-Rubio ME, Pedraza-Chaverri J. Aged garlic extract attenuates gentamicin induced renal damage and oxidative stress in rats. Life Sciences. 2003;73(20):2543-2556.

Markowitz JS, Devane CL, Chavin KD, Taylor RM, Ruan Y, Donovan JL. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) supplementation on cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in healthy volunteers. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 2003;74(2):170-177.

Matsuura H. Saponins in garlic as modifiers of the risk of cardiovascular disease. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(Suppl 3):1000S-1005S.

McCrindle BW, Helden E, Conner WT. Garlic extract therapy in children with hypercholesterolemia. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 1998;152(11):1089-1094.

McNulty CA, Wilson MP, Havinga W, Johnston B, O'Gara EA, Maslin DJ. A pilot study to determine the effectiveness of garlic oil capsules in the treatment of dyspeptic patients with Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter. 2001;6(3):249-253.

Mennella JA, Johnson A, Beauchamp GK. Garlic ingestion by pregnant women alters the odor of amniotic fluid. Chemistry and the Senses. 1995;20(2):207-209.

Miron T, Mironchik M, Mirelman D, Wilchek M, Rabinkov A. Inhibition of tumor growth by a novel approach: in situ allicin generation using targeted alliinase delivery. Molecular Cancer Therapy. 2003;2(12):1295-1301.

Morcos NC, Camilo K. Acute and chronic toxicity study of fish oil and garlic combination. International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research. 2001;71(5):306-312.

Morelli V, Zoorob RJ. Alternative therapies: Part II. Congestive heart failure and hypercholesterolemia. American Family Physician. 2000;62(6):1325-1330.

Mukherjee S, Banerjee SK, Maulik M, Dinda AK, Talwar KK, Maulik SK. Protection against acute Adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity by garlic: Role of endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of TNF-alpha expression. BMC Pharmacology. 2003;3(1):16.

Neil HA, Silagy CA, Lancaster T, et al. Garlic powder in the treatment of moderate hyperlipidaemia: a controlled trial and meta-analysis. Journal of the Royal College of Physicians London.1996;30(4):329-334.

O'Gara EA, Hill DJ, Maslin DJ. Activities of garlic oil, garlic powder, and their diallyl constituents against Helicobacter pylori. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2000;66(5):2269-2273.

Ohnishi ST, Ohnishi T. In vitro effects of aged garlic extract and other nutritional supplements on sickle erythrocytes. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(Suppl 3):1085S-1092S.

Orekhov AN, Grunwald J. Effects of garlic on atherosclerosis. Nutrition. 1997;13(7-8):656-663.

Patya M, Zahalka MA, Vanichkin A, et al. Allicin stimulates lymphocytes and elicits an antitumor effect: a possible role of p21(ras). International Immunology. 2004;16(2):275-281.

Pedraza-Chaverri J, Maldonado PD, Barrera D, Ceron A, Medina-Campos ON, Hernandez-Pando R. Protective effect of diallyl sulfide on oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2003;254(1-2):125-130.

Peleg A, Hershcovici T, Lipa R, Anbar R, Redler M, Beigel Y. Effect of garlic on lipid profile and psychopathologic parameters in people with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Israel Medical Association Journal. 2003;5(9):637-640.

Perez-Pimiento AJ, Moneo I, Santaolalla M, de Paz S, Fernandez-Parra B, Dominguez-Lazaro AR. Anaphylactic reaction to young garlic. Allergy. 1999;54(6):626-629.

Piscitelli SC, Burstein AH, Welden N, Gallicano KD, Falloon J. The effect of garlic supplements on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2002;34(2):234-238.

Rafaat M, Leung AK. Garlic burns. Pediatric Dermatology. 2000;17(6):475-476.

Rivera JO, Hughes HW, Stuart AG. Herbals and asthma: usage patterns among a border population. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2004;38(2):220-225.

Sasaki J, Kita J. Bacteriocidal activity of garlic powder against Bacillus anthracis. Journal of Nutrition Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo). 2003;49(4):297-299.

Satitvipawee P, Rawdaree P, Indrabhakti S, Ratanasuwan T, Getn-gern P, Viwatwongkasem C. No effect of garlic extract supplement on serum lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2003;86(8):750-757.

Scoot-Hartland B. Common alternative therapies: garlic. Gay Men's Health Crisis Treatment Issues.1993/1994;7(11/12).

Sharifi AM, Darabi R, Akbarloo N. Investigation of antihypertensive mechanism of garlic in 2K1C hypertensive rat. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003;86(2-3):219-224.

Silagy C, Neil A. Garlic as a lipid lowering agent—a meta-analysis.Journal of the Royal College of Physicians London.1994;28(1):39-45.

Silagy CA, Neil HA. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure. Journal of Hypertension. 1994;12(4):463-468.

Simons LA, Balasubramaniam S, von Konigsmark M, Parfitt A, Simons J, Peters W. On the effect of garlic on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in mild hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis. 1995;113(2):219-225.

Sivam GP. Protection against Helicobacter pylori and other bacterial infections by garlic. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(Suppl 3):1106S-1108S.

Snell SB. Garlic on the baby's breath. Lancet. 1973;2(7819):43.

Song K, Milner JA. The influence of heating on the anticancer properties of garlic. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(Suppl 3):1054S-1057S.

Spigelski D, Jones PJ. Efficacy of garlic supplementation in lowering serum cholesterol levels. Nutrition Reviews. 2001;59(7):236-241.

Staba EJ, Lash L, Staba JE. A commentary on the effects of garlic extraction and formulation on product composition. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(Suppl 3):1118S-1119S.

Steiner M, Khan AH, Holbert D, Lin RI. A double-blind crossover study in moderately hypercholesterolemic men that compared the effect of aged garlic extract and placebo administration on blood lipids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1996;64(6):866-870.

Steiner M, Li W. Aged garlic extract, a modulator of cardiovascular risk factors: a dose-finding study on the effects of AGE on platelet functions. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(Suppl 3):980S-984S.

Steiner M, Lin RS. Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 1998;31(6):904-908.

Steinmetz KA, Kushi LH, Bostick RM, Folsom AR, Potter JD. Vegetables, fruit, and colon cancer in the Iowa Women's Health Study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1994;139(1):1-15.

Stevinson C, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Garlic for treating hypercholesterolemia. A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2000;133(6):420-429.

Stjernberg L, Berglund J. Garlic as a tick repellent. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2001;285(1):41-42.

Stjernberg L, Berglund J. Garlic as an insect repellent. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2000;284(7):831.

Superko HR, Krauss RM. Garlic powder, effect on plasma lipids, postprandial lipemia, low-density lipoprotein particle size, high-density lipoprotein subclass distribution and lipoprotein(a). Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2000;35(2):321-326.

Takasu J, Uykimpang R, Sunga M, Amagase H, Niihara Y. Aged garlic extract therapy for sickle cell anemia patients. BMC Blood Disorders. 2002;2(1):3.

Tang JL, Armitage JM, Lancaster T, Silagy CA, Fowler GH, Neil HA. Systematic review of dietary intervention trials to lower blood total cholesterol in free-living subjects. British Medical Journal. 1998;316(7139):1213-1220.

Tilli CM, Stavast-Kooy AJ, Vuerstaek JD, et al. The garlic-derived organosulfur component ajoene decreases basal cell carcinoma tumor size by inducing apoptosis. Archives of Dermatology Research. 2003;295(3):117-123.

Tsao SM, Hsu CC, Yin MC. Garlic extract and two diallyl sulphides inhibit methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in BALB/cA mice. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2003;52(6):974-980.

Velmurugan B, Bhuvaneswari V, Nagini S. Effect of S-allylcysteine on oxidant-antioxidant status during N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and saturated sodium chloride-induced gastric carcinogenesis in Wistar rats. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003;12(4):488-494.

Vimal V, Devaki T. Hepatoprotective effect of allicin on tissue defense system in galactosamine/endotoxin challenged rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004;90(1):151-154.

Vorberg G, Schneider B. Therapy with garlic: results of a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. British Journal of Clinical Practice. Supplement. 1990;69:7-11.

Warshafsky S, Kamer RS, Sivak SL. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol. A meta-analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1993;119(7 Pt 1):599-605.

Wong K. Malaria and cancer cells yield to the same garlic compounds. November 14, 2001. Scientific American. Available at: Accessed December 31, 2002.

Yeh YY, Liu L. Cholesterol-lowering effects of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: human and animal studies. Journal of Nutrition. 2001;131(Suppl 3):989S-993S.

You WC, Blot WJ, Chang YS, et al. Allium vegetables and reduced risk of stomach cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 1989;81(2):162-164.

You WC, Zhang L, Gail MH, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1998;27(6):941-944.

Yu FL, Bender W, Fang Q, Ludeke A, Welch B. Prevention of chemical carcinogen DNA binding and inhibition of nuclear RNA polymerase activity by organosulfur compounds as the possible mechanisms for their anticancer initiation and proliferation effects. Cancer Detection and Prevention. 2003;27(5):370-379.

Zhou S, Gao Y, Jiang W, Huang M, Xu A, Paxton JW. Interactions of herbs with cytochrome P450. Drug Metabolism Review. 2003;35(1):35-98.

(Note: The above information is not intended to replace the advice of your physician, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional. It is not meant to indicate that the use of the product is safe, appropriate, or effective for you.)

© 2006-2019 Contact