2-Amino-2-Deoxyglucose, 4-Way Fast Acting, Abciximab Injection, Acanthopanax senticosus, Acarbose, Acetaminophen and Aspirin and Caffeine powder, Acetaminophen and Pseudoephedrine, Acetaminophen, Aspirin, Caffeine Oral, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Dihydrocodeine, Acetohexamide, Achillea, Achillea millefolium, Ackerkraut, Acrivastine and Pseudoephedrine, Actifed Daytime Allergy, Activella, Actoplus Met, Actos, Adderall, Adderall XR, Advil Cold & Sinus, Advil Flu & Body Ache, African Pepper, Afrin Children's Pump Mist, Agathosma betulina, Aggrastat, Agoral Liquid, Agrimonia, Agrimonia eupatoria, Agrimony, Agrylin, Ah-chew D, Airelle, AK-Dilate, AK-Nefrin, Alant, Alder Buckthorn, Alder Dogwood, Alfalfa, Alhova, Alka-Seltzer Plus Cold and Sinus, All Heal, Allegra-D, Allent, Allium, Allium sativum, Aloe barbadensis, Aloe species, Aloe vera, Alora, Altamisa, Amachazuru, Amaryl, Amber Touch-and-Heal, American Cranberry, American Ginseng, Amorphophallus konjac, Amphetamine and Dextroamphetamine, Amphetamine and Dextroamphetamine ER, Anagrelide, Anaplex HD liquid, Anchi, Andehist NR Oral Drops, Andehist-NR Oral Drops, Androderm, AndroGel, Angelica polymorpha, Angelica sinensis, Angeliq, Anthemis nobilis, Apidra, Apricot Vine, Aquatab C Tablets, Arandano, Ardeparin Sodium Injection--No longer available, Armoracia rusticana, Arnica, Arnica montana, Arrow Wood, Asclepias tuberosa, Aspirin, Caffeine and Dihydrocodeine, Avandamet, Avandia, Awa, Azasan, Azathioprine, Azathioprine Injection, Azucacaa, Baikal Scullcap, Baikal Skullcap Root, Bal, Barley, Barley Grass, Barosma betulina, Basiliximab, Basket Willow, Bdellium, Bee Bread, Bilberry, Bird Lime, Bird Pepper, Bird's Foot, Bitter Bark, Black Dogwood, Black ginger, Black Psyllium, Black-Draught, Blond Psyllium, Bloodwort, Blowball, Bol, Borage, Borago officinalis, Bottle-brush, Bramhi, Bridewort, Bromanate Elixir, Bromfed, Bromfed PD, Bromfed Syrup, Bromfed-PD, Bromfenex capsules, Bromfenex PD, Brompheniramine and Pseudoephedrine, Brompheniramine and Pseudoephedrine Extended Release, Brompheniramine and Pseudoephedrine Oral Solution, Brompheniramine, Hydrocodone, and Pseudoephedrine oral liquid, Bucco, Buchu, Bugloss, Buku, Burn Plant, Butterfly Weed, C-Tanna 12 D suspension, C-Tanna 12 D tablets, Cabbage Palm, Cacari, Cafatine PB, Cafatine Suppositories, Cafcit, Cafcit Injection, Cafergot, Cafergot Suppositories, Cafetrate Suppositories, Caffedrine, Caffeine Injection, Caffeine Solution, Caffeine Tablets, Caffeine, Aspirin and Dihydrocodeine, California Buckthorn, Camocamo, Camu-camu, Canada Root, Canadian Ginseng, Canker Wort, Canton ginger, Cape Aloe, Capim Doce, Capsicum, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Carbatuss syrup, Carbetapentane, Guaifenesin, and Phenylephrine Syrup, Carbetapentane, Guaifenesin, and Phenylephrine Liquid, Carbetapentane, Guaifenesin, and Phenylephrine Suspension, Carbetapentane, Phenylephrine, and Pyrilamine oral suspension, Carbetapentane, Phenylephrine, and Pyrilamine, Carbetaplex Liquid, Carbex, Carbinoxamine and Pseudoephedrine Tablets, Carbinoxamine and Pseudoephedrine Oral Solution or Syrup, Carbinoxamine and Pseudoephedrine Extended-Release Tablets, Carbinoxamine, Pseudoephedrine and Hydrocodone, Carica papaya, Cascara, Cassia acutifolia, Cassia angustifolia, Cassia senna, CellCept Injection, CellCept Oral, CellCept Suspension, Cenafed, Cenestin, Centella asiatica, Cetirizine and Pseudoephedrine, Chamomile, Children's Dimetapp Elixir, Chili Pepper, Chinese Angelica, Chinese Knotweed, Chinese Sage, Chitosamine, Chittem Bark, Chlorpheniramine, Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone, and Pseudoephedrine, Chlorpheniramine, Pseudoephedrine and Hydrocodone Liquid, Chlorpromazine, Chlorpromazine Concentrate or Syrup, Chlorpromazine Extended-Release Capsules, Chlorpromazine Injection, Chlorpromazine Intensol Concentrate, Chlorpromazine Suppositories, Chlorpropamide, Chondroitin, Chondroitin Sulfate, Chroma-Pak injection, Chromic Chloride injection, Chromium, Chromium 3, Chromium Acetate, Chromium Chloride, Chromium chloride injection, Chromium injection, Chromium Picolinate, Chrysanthemum parthenium, Church Steeples, Ci Wu Jia, Cilostazol, Claritin-D 12 Hour, Claritin-D 24 Hour, Climara, ClimaraPro, Climbing Knotweed, Clopidogrel, Clozapine, Clozapine Orally-Disentegrating Tablets, Clozaril, Co Q 10, Cochin ginger, Cochlearia armoracia, Cocklebur, Coenzyme Q-10, Cold & Cough Tussin Softgels, Coldec D Extended-Release Tablets, Coldec D Tablets, Coldec TR, CombiPatch, Commiphora molmol, Commiphora myrrha, Common Borage, Common Buckthorn, Common Bugloss, Common ginger, Compazine, Compazine Injection, Compazine Rectal Suppositories, Compazine Spansules, Compazine Syrup, Concerta, Conjugated Estrogen, Conjugated Estrogen Vaginal Cream, Conjugated Estrogens and Medroxyprogesterone, Conjugated Estrogens Injection, Corona de Cristo, Coumadin, Coumadin Injection, Cow Clover, Crack Willow, Cranberry, Crataegus laevigata, Crataegus monogyna, Crataegus oxyacantha, Curcuma, Curcuma species, Cyclosporine, Cyclosporine Injection, Cyclosporine Ophthalmic, Cyclosporine Oral Solution, Cydec Oral Drops, Daclizumab Injection, Daidzein, Dalteparin Injection, Damiana, Danaparoid Injection, Dandelion, Danggui, Danshen, Decofed, Delatestryl, Depo-Testosterone, Detussin, Detussin Oral Liquid, Devil's Bush, Devil's Claw, Devil's Fuge, Devil's Leaf, Devil's Tongue, Dexedrine, Dexedrine Spansule, Dextroamphetamine, Dextroamphetamine Extended-Release, Dextrostat, Diabeta, Diabinese, Digitek, Digoxin, Digoxin Injection, Digoxin Liquid, Dihydrocodeine, Aspirin and Caffeine, Dimetapp Decongestant Pediatric, Dimetapp, Maximum Strength 12 Hour Non-Drowsy Extentabs, Dimetapp, Maximum Strength, Non-Drowsy Liqui-Gels, Diosma, Dipyridamole, Dipyridamole Injection, Disophrol, Docusate and Senna, Dog Wood, Dong Quai, Dorcol Children's Decongestant, Dristan Sinus, Dropwort, Drospirenone and Ethinyl Estradiol, Drospirenone and estradiol tablets, Duratuss HD, Dutch Rushes, Dyeberry, Dymelor, Efidac 24 Hour Relief, Eldepryl, Elecampane, Elephant-foot Yam, Eleuthero, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Elf Dock, Elfwort, Endafed, Enebro, Enerjets, Enoxaparin Injection, Entuss D Oral Liquid, Ephedra, Ephedra sinica, Epitonin, Eptifibatide, Ercaf, Ergo-Caff, Ergotamine and Caffeine Rectal Suppositories, Ergotamine Tartrate and Caffeine, Erva Doce, Esclim, Eskalith, Eskalith CR, Esterfied Estrogens and Methyltestosterone, Esterified Estrogens, Estrace, Estrace Vaginal Cream, Estraderm Patch, Estradiol, Estradiol and Levonorgestrel, Estradiol and Norethindrone Acetate Oral, Estradiol and Norethindrone Transdermal Patch, Estradiol and Norgestimate, Estradiol Topical Emulsion, Estradiol Topical Gel, Estradiol Transdermal System, Estradiol Vaginal Cream, Estradiol Vaginal Ring, Estradiol Vaginal Tablets, Estrasorb, Estratab, Estratest, Estratest H.S., Estring, EstroGel, Estrone Injection, Estropipate tablets, Etonogestrel and ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring, Etrafon, Eucalyptus, European Blueberry, European Buckthorn, European Mistletoe, Evening Primrose, Excedrin Extra Strength, Excedrin Migraine, Exlax, Exlax Chocolated, Fan Palm, Fazoclo, Featherfew, FemPatch, Femring, Fenugreek, Feuille de Luzerna, Fever Plant, Feverfew, Fexofenadine and Pseudoephedrine, Filipendula ulmaria, Five Fingers, FK 506, Flaxseed, Flaxseed oil, Flea Seed, Flirtwort, Flowery Knotweed, Fluoxetine and Olanzapine, Fluphenazine, Fluphenazine Injection, Fluphenazine Oral Concentrate or Elixir, Flux Root, Fo-Ti, Fortamet, Fragmin, Frangula Bark, Funffing, Gan Cao, Garden ginger, Garlic, Ge Gen, Genaphed, Genevrier, Gengraf, Gengraf Solution, Genuine chamomile, Geodon, Geodon Injection, German Chamomile, German Mustard, Ginepro, Gingembre, Ginger, Ginkgo, Ginkgo Biloba, Ginseng, American, Glimepiride, Glipizide, Glipizide and Metformin, Glipizide Extended-Release, Glossy Buckthorn, Glucomannan, Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glucosamine, Glucosamine Hydrochloride, Glucosamine Sulfate, Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL, Glucovance, Glyburide, Glyburide and Metformin, Glycine max, Glycine soja, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glynase, Glyset, Goat's Pod, Golden Bough, Goody's Extra Strength Headache Powder, Gotu Kola, Graine de lin, Granadilla, Grape Seed, Grape Seed Extract, Grapple Plant, Great Raifort, Greek Clover, Greek Hay, Green Arrow, Guaifenesin, Hydrocodone, and Pseudoephedrine, Guavaberry, Guggal Resin, Guiatuss CF Syrup, Gum Myrrh, Gurmar, Gymnema sylvestre, Gynodiol, Gynostemma, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Hagedorn, Haldol Decanoate Injection, Haldol Injection, Haldol Oral Concentrate, Haldol Tablets, Haloperidol Decanoate Injection, Haloperidol Lactate Injection, Haloperidol Oral Concentrate, Haloperidol Tablets, Hardhay, Harpagophytum procumbens, Hartshorn, Haw, Hawthorn, HC Tussive D Syrup, He Shou Wu, Hedgethorn, Heerabol, Heparin Injection, Herb de la Croix, Herba de la pastora, Herbal Ecstasy, Herbe de Saint-Guillaume, Hexatuss, Highwaythorn, Histex HC, Histex SR capsules, Histinex D Oral Liquid, Histinex PV Syrup, Histussin D, Histussin D Syrup, Hordeum vulgare, Horse Chestnut, Horse Radish, Horse-elder, Horseheal, Horseradish, Horsetail, Hu Lu Ba, Huang Ken, Huang Qin, Huckleberry, Humalog, Humalog Mix 75/25, Humulin, Humulin 50/50, Humulin 70/30, Hungarian chamomile, Hwanggum, Hydro-Tussin HC Syrup, Hydro-Tussin HD, Hydro-Tussin XP, Hydrocodone and Phenylephrine, Hydrocodone and Pseudoephedrine Liquid, Hydrocodone, Potassium Guaiacolsulfonate and Pseudoephedrine, Hydrocotyle asiatica, Hydron PSC Liquid, Hypericum, Hypericum perforatum, Hyphed Liquid, Ibuprofen and Pseudoephedrine Suspension, Ibuprofen and Pseuodoephedrine, Iletin II, Iletin II Mixed, Imber, Imuran, Imuran Injection, Indian Pennywort, Indian Saffron, Innohep, Insulin - Mixed, Insulin glulisine, Insulin injection, Insulin Lispro, Integrilin, Inula helenium, Iofed, Iofed PD, Ipe Roxo, Ipes, Irish Daisy, Isocarboxazid, Isphagula, Jamaican ginger, Jantoven, Japanese Arrowroot, Japanese Silver Apricot, Jiaogulan, Juniper, Juniperus communis, Kaa Jhee, Kava, Kava-Kava, Kawa, Kew, Kew Tree, Khao Yen, Kid Kare, Klamath Weed, Konjac, Konjac Mannan, Konnyaku, Kudzu, Kuli, Lady of the Meadow, Lanoxicaps, Lanoxin, Lanoxin Injection, Lanoxin Liquid, Lapacho, Leinsamen, Leonurus cardiaca, Leopard's Bane, Leotodon taraxacum, Levall Suspension, Licorice, Lignum Crucis, Linseed, Linseed oil, Lint bells, Linum, Lion's Ear, Lion's Tail, Lion's Tooth, Liquorice, Lithane, Lithium, Lithium Oral Syrup, Lithium, Extended-Release, Lithobid, Lithonate, Lithotabs, Little Colds, Little Noses Gentle Formula, Infants & Children, Liverwort, Lodrane 12 D tablets, Lodrane LD capsules, Loratadine and Pseudoephedrine, Lortuss HC, Lovenox, Loxapine Oral, Loxapine Oral Solution, Loxitane, Loxitane C, Lucerne, Lunelle, Ma Huang, Mahuang, Mai Ya, Maidenhair Tree, Mapap Sinus, Marplan, Marsh Penny, Matricaria chamomilla, Maxifed DM Tablets, Maxiumum Relief Exlax, Mayblossom, Maybush, Mayflower, Maypop, MEL, Meadow Clover, Meadowsweet, Medent-DM Tablets, Medicago, Medicago sativa, Medroxyprogesterone acetate and Estradiol cypionate injection, Melatonin, Menest, Menostar, Merasingi, Mesoridazine Injection, Mesoridazine Oral, Mesoridazine Oral Concentrate, Metadate CD, Metadate ER, Metaglip, Metformin, Metformin Extended-Release, Metformin Oral Solution, Methi, Methylin, Methylin ER, Methylphenidate, Methylphenidate ER, Mexican Chillies, Mexican damiana, Micronase, Migergot, Miglitol, Milfoil, Millepertuis, Miracle Grass, Mistal, Mistletoe, Mitoquinone, Mizibcoc, MLT, Mo Yao, Modafinil, Mossberry, Motherwort, Motrin Children's Cold Suspension, Motrin Sinus Headache, Mountain Radish, Mountain Snuff, Mountain Tobacco, Muromonab-CD3, Muscat, Muzei, Mycophenalate Suspension, Mycophenolate Injection, Mycophenolate Oral, Mydfrin, Myrrh, N-acetyl Glucosamine, N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, Nardil, Neo-Synephrine, Neo-Synephrine 4-Hour, Neo-Synephrine Injection, Neocaf Injection, Neoral, Neoral Injection, Neoral Solution, Nettle, Nettle Tops, No-Tuss, NoDoz, Nopal, Normiflo - No longer available, North American Ginseng, Nosebleed Plant, NovoLog Mix, Novolin, Novolin 70/30, NuvaRing, OEP, Oenothera species, Ogen, Ogon, Olanzapine, Olanzapine Disintegrating Tablets, Olanzapine Injection, Old woman's broom, Oleae europaea, Oleae folium, Oleum olivae, Olive Leaf, Olive Oil, Olivier, Opopanax, Opuntia species, Orange Milkweed, Orange Swallow-wort, Orgaran, Orinase, Ornex, Ortho-Est, Ortho-Prefest, Orthoclone OKT3, Ox's Tongue, P-V Tussin Syrup, Paddock-pipes, Palgic D Tablets, Palgic-D Extended-Release Tablets, Palgic-DS Syrup, Panax quinquefolius, Pancof-HC Liquid, Pancof-XP, Panlor DC, Panlor SS, PanMist-DM Tablets, Panmist-DM Syrup, Papain, Paprika, Parnate, Passiflora incarnata, Passion Flower, Passion Vine, Pau D'arco, Pearl Barley, PediaCare Decongestant, Infants, Pediatex-D Liquid, Pepperrot, Peri-Colace, Permitil, Permitil Oral Concentrate, Perphenazine and Amitriptyline, Perphenazine Injection, Perphenazine Oral, Perphenazine Oral Concentrate, Persantine, Persantine Injection, Pewterwort, Phenelzine, Phenergan VC, Phenergan VC with Codeine, Phenoptic, Phenylephrine Eye Solution, Phenylephrine Injection, Phenylephrine Nasal, Phenylephrine tablets, Phenylephrine, Promethazine and Codeine, Pherazine VC, Pioglitazone, Pioglitazone and Metformin, Piper methysticum, Plantago species, Plantain Seed, Plavix, Pletal, Pleurisy root, Polygonum multiflorum, Popptillo, Prandin, Precose, Prefest, Prefrin Liquifilm, Premarin, Premarin Intravenous, Premarin Vaginal Cream, Premphase, Prempro, Prickly Pear Cactus, Prochlorperazine, Prochlorperazine ER, Prochlorperazine Injection, Prochlorperazine Oral Syrup, Prochlorperazine Rectal Suppositories, Profen Forte DM Tablets, Profen II DM Liquid, Profen II DM Tablets, Prograf, Prograf Injection, Prolixin, Prolixin Decanoate, Prolixin Elixir, Prolixin Enanthate, Prolixin Injection, Prolixin Oral Concentrate, Prometh VC Plain, Promethazine and Phenylephrine, Promethazine VC with Codeine, Protopic, Protuss DM Tablets, Protuss-D, Provigil, Pseubrom, Pseudoephedrine, Pseudoephedrine and Dextromethorphan, Pseudoephedrine and Hydrocodone, Pseudoephedrine Extended Release, Pseudoephedrine HCl, Pseudoephedrine Oral Solution or Syrup, Pseudoephedrine, Guaifenesin and Dextromethorphan, Pseudoephedrine, Guaifenesin, Dextromethhorphan Liquid, Pseudovent DM, Psyllium Seed, Pueraria, Pueraria lobata, Pueraria montana, Pueraria thunbergiana, Puffball, Pulmonaria Officinalis, Purging Buckthorn, Purple Clover, Purple Medick, Purshiana Bark, Pushkarmoola, PV Tussin Tablets, Pyrethrum parthenium, Q 10, Queen of the Meadow, Quetiapine, Radix Salvia, Ramsthorn, Rapamune, Rapamune Oral Solution, Red Berry, Red Clover, Red Cole, Red Pepper, Red Sage, Red Wine Extract, Relief, Ren Shen, ReoPro, Repaglinide, Respahist capsules, Restasis, Rhamnus cathartica, Rhamnus frangula, Rhamnus purshiana, Rhinall, Riomet, Risperdal, Risperdal Consta, Risperdal Oral Solution, Risperidone, Risperidone Injection, Risperidone Oral Solution, Ritalin, Ritalin SR, Robafen CF Syrup, Robitussin CF Syrup, Robitussin Maximum Strength Cough & Cold, Roman Chamomile, Roman Nettle, Rondec Chewable Tablet, Rondec Oral Drops, Rondec Syrup, Rondec Tablets, Rondec-TR Tablets, Rosiglitazone, Rosiglitazone and Metformin, Rosin Rose, Rumberry, Russian Root, Rustic Treacle, Sabal, Sabal serrulata, Sacred Bark, Sagrada Bark, Salix, Salix alba, Salix fragilis, Salix purpurea, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Salvia Root, Sandimmune, Sandimmune Injection, Sandimmune Solution, Sarsa, Sarsaparilla, Saw Palmetto, Scabwort, Scotch Barley, Scouring Rush, Scrub Palm, Scute, Scutellaria baicalensis, Selegiline, Semprex-D, Senexon, Senna, Senna Laxatives, Senna Oral Syrup, Senna Suppositories, Senna-Gen, Senokot, Senokot Suppositories, Senokot Syrup, Senokot XTRA, Senokot-S, Serenoa, Serenoa repens, Serentil, Serentil Injection, Serentil Oral Concetrate, Seroquel, Shave-grass, Shigoka, Siberian Ginseng, Silfedrine, Children's, Silkweed, Simply Stuffy, Simulect, Sinustop, Sirolimus, Sirolimus Oral Solution, SJW, Smilace, Smilax, Smilax aristolochiifolia, Smilax officinalis, Smilax regelii, Smilax sarsaparilla, Snake Plant, Sonazine Concentrate, Sonazine Syrup, Southern Ginseng, Soy, Soya, Soybeans, Spirea, Spirea ulmaria, St. John's Wort, Starflower, Staunch Weed, Stevia, Stevia eupatorium, Stevia rebaudiana, Stickwort, Stinging Nettle, Stingnose, Stinking Rose, Striant, Su-Tuss HD, Sudafed, Sudafed PE, Sudafed Sinus and Cold, Sudafed Sinus Headache, Sudafed, Children's Non-Drowsy, Sun Drop, Swallow-wort, Sweet Herb, Sweet Oil, Sweet Root, Sweetleaf, Symbyax, Synalgos-DC, Syntest D.S., Syntest H.S., Tabasco Pepper, Tabebuia species, Tacrolimus, Tacrolimus Injection, Tacrolimus ointment, Taheebo, Taiga, Tanacetum parthenium, Tang-Kuei, Taraxacum officinale, Ten Shen, Testim, Testoderm, Testoderm TTS, Testosterone Buccal, Testosterone Gel, Testosterone Injection, Testosterone Topical, Testosterone Transdermal, Thor-Prom, Thorazine, Thorazine Concentrate, Thorazine Injection, Thorazine Spansule, Thorazine Suppositories, Thorazine Syrup, Thorny Pepperbush, Thousand-Leaf, Throw-wort, Ticlid, Ticlopidine, Tinzaparin, Tipton Weed, Tirofiban, Toadpipe, Tolazamide, Tolbutamide, Tolinase, Tonga, Touch-Me-Not, Touro Allergy capsules, Touro CC Tablets, Tranylcypromine, Trefoil, Triaminic Allergy Congestion, Triavil, Trifolium pratense, Trigonella, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Trilafon, Trilafon Concentrate, Trilafon Injection, Trivalent Chromium, Trumpet Bush, Tuber Root, Turmeric, Turnera diffusa, Tuss S Syrup, Tussend, Tussend Syrup, Tussi-12 D suspension, Tussi-12 D tablets, Tylenol Sinus, Ubidecarenone, Ubiquinone, ULTRAbrom capsules, ULTRAbrom PD capsules, Urtica species, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium species, Vagifem, Vanquish, Vegetable pepsin, Velosulin, Velvet Dock, Vicks 44D Cough & Head Congestion, Vicks Sinex Ultra Fine Mist, Viscum, Viscum album, Vitamin Q, Vitis pentaphyllum, Vitis vinifera, Vivarin, Vivelle, Vivelle-Dot, Vogelmistel, Wacholder, Warfarin, Warfarin injection, Water Lemon, Waythorn, White Root, White Willow, Whitethorn, Whortleberry, Wigraine, Wigraine Suppositories, Wild Chamomile, Wild Clover, Wild Endive, Wild Pepper, Wild Quinine, Wild Root, Wild Sunflower, Wineberry, Winterlein, Wogon, Wolf's Bane, Wolfbane, Wood Spider, Wound Wort, Xianxao, Yagona, Yarrow, Yarroway, Yasmin, Yege, Yellow Starwort, Yerba Dulce, Yinhsing, Z-Cof DM Syrup, Zanzibar Pepper, Zenapax, Zingiber officinale, Ziprasidone, Ziprasidone Injection, ZTuss, ZTuss Expectorant liquid, Zyprexa, Zyprexa Injection, Zyprexa Zydis, Zyprexa Zydis Injection, Zyrtec-D.
Quick guide to Red Ginseng
Scientific Name: Panax Ginseng
Other Names: Asian Ginseng, Chinese Ginseng, Ginseng, Panax, Guigai, Japanese Ginseng, Korean Ginseng, Ninjin, Oriental Ginseng, Panax schinseng, Red Ginseng, Seng
Who is this for?
NOTE: Panax ginseng is different from American ginseng and Eleuthero (formerly Siberian ginseng). They are not interchangeable.
Panax ginseng is related to, but not identical with American ginseng. Panax ginseng is native to Asia, while American ginseng originated on the North American continent. The two plants have somewhat different chemical compositions, the most notable differences are that Panax ginseng has higher levels of a ginsenoside known as Rg1 and lower levels of ginsenoside Rb1.
Panax ginseng is best known as an adaptogen a substance that may help individuals cope with physical and emotional stress. As a part of traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years, Panax ginseng has been used to treat almost every ailment from anxiety to cancer. Currently, it is used extensively in Oriental countries to treat several illnesses, including heart conditions, and for an overall health enhancer.
In western herbal medicine, Panax ginsengs regulating effects on the immune system have been studied for potential effectiveness in preventing colds, flu, and some forms of cancer. In clinical studies, Panax ginseng has been shown to lower blood levels of both sugar and cholesterol, therefore it may help treat type 2 diabetes and high cholesterol. Its other potential uses are not as well defined, however. In separate studies of laboratory animals and humans, Panax ginseng had a relaxing effect on muscles in the lungs. The resulting airway expansion may help relieve asthma symptoms and other lung conditions that result from constricted airways. In other studies, a combination of Panax ginseng and gingko is believed to boost memory and thinking processes. Early results from laboratory study may show that chemicals in Panax ginseng promote the growth of blood vessels, which could be valuable in treating extensive injuries. All of these possible effects are under more extensive study.
Panax ginseng may be taken by mouth or applied topically, directly to the penis to treat erectile dysfunction in men. One large study revealed that taking Panax ginseng orally improved male fertility by increasing sperm count, quality, and movement. Although the exact reasons that Panax ginseng may enhance male fertility are not completely known, it is believed that chemicals in Panax ginseng may activate the body system that increases production of certain hormones. Whether Panax ginseng increases testosterone levels in the blood is uncertain, however. Nevertheless, due to proposed hormonal activation, Panax ginseng is frequently added to sports drinks or supplements as a way to enhance athletic performance, even though no evidence supports this use.
Through the same activation of hormone production, chemicals in Panax ginseng are thought to exert an effect similar to the female hormone, estrogen. In some laboratory studies, Panax ginseng accelerated the growth of breast cancer cells, perhaps by activating estrogen receptors. Other laboratory and animal studies suggest that Panax ginseng may increase blood levels of substances that the body converts into estrogen. Results of a recent chemical analysis show that some of Panax ginsengs possible estrogenic effects may be due to a fungus that frequently contaminates Panax ginseng roots. Much more research is needed to understand more clearly Panax ginsengs possible hormonal effects.
When should I be careful taking it?
An intoxication-like syndrome has been seen in a few newborn babies who were given Panax ginseng or whose mothers took it while pregnant or breast-feeding. One documented case of an infant's death which was attributed to Panax ginseng intoxication has been reported. Small children and babies should not be given Panax ginseng; pregnant and breast-feeding women should also avoid taking it.
Women with hormone-dependent conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and cancers of the breast, ovaries, or uterus should not take Panax ginseng due to its possible estrogenic effects. Men with prostate cancer should also avoid taking Panax ginseng.
In clinical studies of both humans and animals, Panax ginseng has slowed the rate and decreased the force of heartbeats. It has also reduced blood pressure in some cases. All of these effects may worsen some heart conditions. Individuals with any kind of heart disease should not take Panax ginseng without supervision from a healthcare professional.
Individuals with diabetes should avoid taking large amounts of Panax ginseng because it can lower blood sugar levels, potentially resulting in hypoglycemia (blood sugar that is too low). Indications that blood sugar may be too low include shakiness, sweating, confusion, distorted speech, and loss of muscle control. If not corrected, low blood sugar can lead to unconsciousness and even death.
Taking Panax ginseng by mouth may cause or worsen insomnia.
What side effects should I watch for?
Note:Most side effects from Panax ginseng have been reported in individuals who took high doses or who took Panax ginseng continually for long periods of time.
Major Side Effects
Infants given Panax ginseng may develop a condition, resembling alcohol intoxication that has lead to at least one reported death of a newborn.
Rarely, taking Panax ginseng by mouth has been associated with non-infectious hepatitis.
In other rare reports, Panax ginseng may have caused inflammation of blood vessels in the brain a condition that could result in headaches or strokes.
One case has been reported of an individual who developed anaphylaxis-like symptoms shortly after ingesting a small amount of Panax ginseng syrup. Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that may involve the development of a rash or hives, a sudden fall in blood pressure, swelling of the mouth and throat, or unconsciousness.
Less Severe Side Effects
Other side effects associated with taking Panax ginseng are generally mild and temporary. They usually diminish after a few days and they may include:
A few individuals have experienced itchy rashes after taking or applying Panax ginseng preparations or touching Panax ginseng plants. In very rare cases, Panax ginseng may have caused a very serious skin reaction called Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. A doctor should be contacted right away if a high fever, swollen eyelids, blisters in the mouth, or red marks on the skin develop while Panax ginseng is taken.
What interactions should I watch for?
In studies, Panax ginseng has been shown to increase the time blood needs to clot. When it is taken with antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs, the effect of the drug may be increased, possibly resulting in uncontrolled bleeding.
Some drugs used for asthma, heart problems, or other reasons can affect heart rhythm. Because Panax ginseng can change the force and rate of heart beats, it can increase the risk of side effects from drugs such as:
Panax ginseng may interfere with insulin and oral drugs for diabetes, such as:
Panax ginseng is believed to affect levels of neurotransmitters, chemicals that carry messages from nerve cells to other cells. Antipsychotic drugs used to treat mental disorders such as schizophrenia also alter the levels of neurotransmitters. If Panax ginseng and antipsychotic drugs are taken at the same time, the effectiveness of the drug may be changed, so it is best to avoid using Panax ginseng while taking drugs such as:
Because it is broken down by certain enzymes in the liver, Panax ginseng may possibly interfere with the use of prescription drugs that are processed by the same enzymes. Some of these drugs are:
In reported cases, the risk of side effects such as headache, insomnia, and shakiness increased when Panax ginseng was taken with antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. Drugs in this class include:
Because it is a non-specific central nervous system stimulant, Panax ginseng may increase the effects and the side effects of prescription drugs that also stimulate the central nervous system. Used mainly to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy, and obesity; stimulant drugs can raise heart rate and blood pressure. They include:
Panax ginseng can affect the ability of blood to clot after an injury. Aspirin can also delay clotting, so Panax ginseng should not be taken orally at the same time as aspirin.
Stimulants may be included in non-prescription drugs that are used for increasing energy, losing weight, raising mental alertness, or treating colds or asthma. If Panax ginseng is taken by mouth at the same time as one of these products is being used, the central nervous system may be overstimulated, possibly resulting in insomnia, irritability, and increased blood pressure. If you are not sure whether the non-prescription drugs you take contain stimulants, ask your doctor or pharmacist before you take Panax ginseng.
Theoretically, if Panax ginseng is used with other herbs that affect blood clotting, bleeding may occur. Some of the most common herbal products that might inhibit blood clotting are:
If Panax ginseng is taken at the same time as other herbs that also affect the heart, potentially dangerous changes in heart function may result. Some herbal products with heart effects are:
Because Panax ginseng may decrease blood sugar levels, taking it with other blood sugar-lowering herbal products may result in hypoglycemia - blood sugar that is too low. Herbals that may reduce blood sugar include:
Certain herbal products are stimulants that may result in side effects if they are taken with Panax ginseng. These herbal products include ephedra (which has been withdrawn from the market), guarana, and mate. Taken together with Panax ginseng, any one of these herbals may cause insomnia, irritability, nervousness, and other side effects.
Caffeine increases the central nervous system stimulation effect of Panax ginseng. The combination may cause excessive nervousness and irritability, along with other signs of over-stimulation. Caffeinated beverages such as coffee, soft drinks, and tea should not be consumed when taking Panax ginseng.
Some interactions between herbal products and medications can be more severe than others. The best way for you to avoid harmful interactions is to tell your doctor and/or pharmacist what medications you are currently taking, including any over-the-counter products, vitamins, and herbals.
Should I take it?
Panax ginseng is native to the northern parts of China, Korea, and Siberia. While closely related to American ginseng, Panax ginseng contains different chemical substances. It looks similar to American ginseng, with mature plants having three to seven short stems each containing five leaves. One tall central stem bears a cluster of tiny yellow flowers followed by small red berries. Panax ginseng plants generally are larger than American ginseng plants, their roots may be bigger in diameter, and the roots have a sweetish smell. Typically, fresh roots of Panax ginseng are a slightly darker tan color, as opposed to a yellow or cream color for the roots of American ginseng. Unlike the quicker-growing American ginseng, though, cultivated Panax ginseng roots are not large enough to harvest until the plants are at least 7 years old. Wild Panax ginseng grows even more slowly. Thought to be more effective than cultivated roots, authenticated extremely old wild Panax ginseng roots are extremely expensive.
The name red ginseng refers to a method of preserving Panax ginseng by steaming it under pressure. Processing by steam is thought to increase the amounts of some active components of Panax ginseng.
In Oriental countries, Panax ginseng is used to flavor drinks and foods, it is an ingredient in some soft drinks and chewing gum, and it is included in vitamin tablets. Powdered Panax ginseng may be added to cooked foods or coffee. In cosmetics, Panax ginseng is used as a scent and a coloring agent.
Dosage and Administration
Panax ginseng is available in a number of different oral dosage forms that include capsules, dried root powder, fresh root, liquid extracts, and teas. Many Panax ginseng products are standardized to contain 7% of the active ingredients known as ginsenosides. Standardization by the manufacturer should assure the same amount of active ingredient in every batch of the commercial preparation. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not require standardization of herbal products, so not every Panax ginseng product sold in the United States may contain the same active ingredients. Additionally, the amounts of active chemicals in Panax ginseng vary greatly according to how the plants are grown, harvested, processed, and stored. Panax ginseng products may be extended with other types of ginseng that are less expensive to produce.
For improving or maintaining general health, a commonly recommended daily dose of oral Panax ginseng is 500 mg to 3000 mg (0.5 gram to 3 grams) of fresh root or 200 mg to 600 mg as dried root powder in capsules. Doses for other conditions differ widely depending on the type of product being used and the condition being treated. If Panax ginseng is used, the directions on the package that is purchased should be followed.
Panax ginseng tea may be made by soaking about 3000 mg (3 grams) of chopped fresh root or 1500 mg (1.5 grams) of dried root powder in about 5 ounces of boiling water for 10 to 15 minutes and then straining out the solid particles. Panax ginseng tea may have a strong taste, so it is often sweetened, flavored, or added to other herbals before drinking.
Many sources recommend that the use of Panax ginseng be interrupted for 2 or 3 weeks after oral Panax ginseng is used continuously for up to 3 months.
Taken most commonly as an adaptogen to help the body resist stress, Panax ginseng has been studied for improving memory, treating asthma, and enhancing immune function. It may also help to reduce levels of blood sugar and blood cholesterol. Either orally or topically, it may treat erectile dysfunction and it may also help to relieve some types of male infertility. Possible estrogenic effects need further investigation.
Individuals who have heart conditions or cancers of the breast, ovaries, prostate, or uterus should not take Panax ginseng. Pregnant women, infants, and young children should also avoid taking it. Individuals who have diabetes or insomnia should be careful if they decide to take Panax ginseng.
Rarely, newborn babies who are given Panax ginseng have developed an intoxication-like condition. In adults, rare cases of hepatitis or inflamed blood vessels in the brain have been attributed to taking it. One case of possible severe allergy to Panax ginseng resulted in breathing problems, low blood pressure, and sudden rash. More often, Panax ginseng is associated with milder and temporary side effects such as diarrhea, heart rate changes, insomnia, and nervousness.
Panax ginseng may interfere with many prescription drugs, non-prescription products, and herbals, including:
Anon: Ginseng, Panax. In: DerMarderosian A, Beutler JA, eds. Facts and Comparisons: The Review of Natural Products. St. Louis, MO, Facts and Comparisons. February 2001.
Bespalov VG, Alexandrov VA, Limarenko AY, et al. Chemoprevention of mammary, cervix and nervous system carcinogenesis in animals using cultured Panax ginseng drugs and preliminary clinical trials in patients with precancerous lesions of the esophagus and endometrium. Journal of Korean Medical Science. 2001;16 (Suppl):S42-S53.
Block KI, Mead MN. Immune system effects of echinacea, ginseng, and astragalus: a review. Integrated Cancer Therapy. 2003;2(3):247-267.
Cabral de Oliveira AC, Perez AC, Merino G, Prieto JG, Alvarez AI. Protective effects of Panax ginseng on muscle injury and inflammation after eccentric exercise. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology C. Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2001;130:369-377.
Cardinal BJ, Engels HJ. Ginseng does not enhance psychological well-being in healthy, young adults: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2001;101(6):655-660.
Chan RY, Chen WF, Dong A, Guo D, Wong MS. Estrogen-like activity of ginsenoside Rg1 derived from Panax notoginseng. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2002;87(8):3691-3695.
Complimentary and Alternative Medicines Institute. University of the Sciences in Philadelphia. Ginseng. 2000. Available at: http://ww.cami.usip.edu/monographs/ginseng.htm. Accessed April 9, 2003.
Coon JT, Ernst E. Panax ginseng: a systematic review of adverse effects and drug interactions. Drug Safety. 2002;25(5):323-344.
Dasgupta A, Wu S, Actor J, Olsen M, Wells A, Datta P. Effect of Asian and Siberian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by five digoxin immunoassays. Significant variation in digoxin-like immunoreactivity among commercial ginsengs. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2003;119(2):298-303.
Engels HJ, Kolokouri I, Cieslak TJ 2nd, Wirth JC. Effects of ginseng supplementation on supramaximal exercise performance and short-term recovery. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2001;15(3):290-295.
Fahim MS, Fahim Z, Harman JM, Clevenger TE, Mullins W, Hafez ES. Effect of Panax ginseng on testosterone level and prostate in male rats. Archives of Andrology. 1982;8(4):261-263.
Gaffney BT, Hugel HM, Rich PA. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sciences. 2001;70(4):431-442.
Gaffney BT, Hugel HM, Rich PA. Panax ginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus may exaggerate an already existing biphasic response to stress via inhibition of enzymes which limit the binding of stress hormones to their receptors. Medical Hypotheses. 2001;56(5):567-572.
Harkey MR, Henderson GL, Gershwin ME, et al. Variability in commercial ginseng products: an analysis of 25 preparations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001;73(6):1101-1106.
Haughton C. Panax ginseng (Meyer). Revised September 23, 2002. Available at: http://www.purplesage.org.uk/profiles/ginseng.htm. Accessed March 28, 2003.
HealthNotes, Inc. Asian ginseng. 2002. Available at: http://www.mycustompak.com/healthNotes/Herb/Ginseng_Asian.htm Accessed March 28, 2003.
Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, Nam KY, Ahn TY. A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a preliminary report. Journal of Urology. 2002;168(5):2070-2073.
Izzo AA, Ernst E. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review. Drugs. 2001;61(15):2163-2175.
Jellin JM, Gregory P, Batz F, Hitchens K, et al, eds. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 3rd Edition. Stockton CA: Therapeutic Research Facility, 2000.
Kitts D, Hu C. Efficacy and safety of ginseng. Public Health and Nutrition. 2000;3(4A):473-485.
Lee Y, Jin Y, Lim W, Ji S, Choi S, Jang S, Lee S. A ginsenoside-Rh1, a component of ginseng saponin, activates estrogen receptor in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 2003;84(4):463-468.
Lee YJ, Jin YR, Lim WC, Park WK, Cho JY, Jang S, Lee SK. Ginsenoside-Rb1 acts as a weak phytoestrogen in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Archives of Pharmaceutical Research 2003;26(1):58-63.
Lewis WH, Zenger VE, Lynch RG. No adaptogen response of mice to ginseng and Eleutherococcus infusions. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1983;8(2):209-214.
Ong YC, Yong EL. Panax (ginseng)panacea or placebo? Molecular and cellular basis of its pharmacological activity. Annals of the Academy of Medicine of Singapore. 2000;29(1):424-426.
Proctor, JTA. Ginseng: Old crop, new directions. pp. 565-577. In: J. Janick (ed.), Progress in new crops. Arlington, VA: ASHS Press; 1996.
Salvati G, Genovesi G, Marcellini L, Paolini P, De Nuccio I, Pepe M, Re M. Effects of Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer saponins on male fertility. Panminerva Medica. 1996;38(4):249-254.
Sengupta S, Toh SA, Sellers LA, et al. Modulating angiogenesis: the yin and the yang in ginseng. Circulation. 2004;110(10):1219-1225.
Shin HR, Kim JY, Yun TK, Morgan G, Vainio H. The cancer-preventive potential of Panax ginseng: a review of human and experimental evidence. Cancer Causes and Control 2000;11(6):565-576.
Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. Decreasing, null and increasing effects of eight popular types of ginseng on acute postprandial glycemic indices in healthy humans: the role of ginsenosides. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2004;23(3):248-258.
Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. Null and opposing effects of Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) on acute glycemia: results of two acute dose escalation studies. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2003;22(6):524-532.
Smolinske SC. Dietary supplement-drug interactions. Journal of the American Medical Womens Association. 1999;54(4):191-192 and 195.
Suh SO, Kroh M, Kim NR, Joh YG, Cho MY. Effects of red ginseng upon postoperative immunity and survival in patients with stage III gastric cancer. American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2002;30(4):483-494.
Wiwanitkit V, Taungjaruwinai W. A case report of suspected ginseng allergy. Posted July 21, 2004. Medscape General Medicine. 2004;6(3). Medscape. Available at: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/482833?src=mp. Accessed July 28, 2004.
Wu XG, Zhu DH, Li X. Anticarcinogenic effect of red ginseng on the development of liver cancer induced by diethylnitrosamine in rats. Journal of Korean Medical Science. 2001;16(Suppl):S61-S65.
Youl Kang H, Hwan Kim S, Jun Lee W, Byrne HK. Effects of ginseng ingestion on growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor 1 responses to acute resistance exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2002;16(2):179-183.
Yun TK. Experimental and epidemiological evidence on non-organ specific cancer preventive effect of Korean ginseng and identification of active compounds. Mutation Research. 2003;523-524:63-74.
Yun TK. Brief introduction of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer. Journal of Korean Medical Science. 2001;16(Suppl):S3-S5.
Yun TK. Panax ginsenga non-organ-specific cancer preventive? Lancet Oncology. 2001;2(1):49-55.
Yun TK, Choi SY. Preventive effect of ginseng intake against various human cancers: a case-control study on 1987 pairs. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 1995;4(4):401-408.
Yun TK, Lee YS, Lee YH, Kim SI, Yun HY. Anticarcinogenic effect of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer and identification of active compounds. Journal of Korean Medical Science. 2001;16(Suppl):S6-S18.
(Note: The above information is not intended to replace the advice of your physician, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional. It is not meant to indicate that the use of the product is safe, appropriate, or effective for you.)