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Known interactions

2-Amino-2-Deoxyglucose, Abciximab Injection, Acanthopanax senticosus, Achillea, Achillea millefolium, Ackerkraut, African Pepper, Agathosma betulina, Aggrastat, Agrimonia, Agrimonia eupatoria, Agrimony, Agrylin, Alfalfa, Alhova, Allium, Allium sativum, Altamisa, Amachazuru, American Cranberry, Anagrelide, Angelica polymorpha, Angelica sinensis, Anthemis nobilis, Apricot Vine, Arandano, Ardeparin Sodium Injection--No longer available, Armoracia rusticana, Arnica, Arnica montana, Asian Ginseng, Awa, Barosma betulina, Basket Willow, Bee Bread, Bird Pepper, Bird's Foot, Black ginger, Bloodwort, Borage, Borago officinalis, Bridewort, Bucco, Buchu, Bugloss, Buku, Cabbage Palm, Cacari, Camocamo, Camu-camu, Canton ginger, Capsicum, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Carica papaya, Chamomile, Chili Pepper, Chinese Angelica, Chinese Ginseng, Chinese Sage, Chitosamine, Chondroitin, Chondroitin Sulfate, Chrysanthemum parthenium, Church Steeples, Ci Wu Jia, Cilostazol, Clopidogrel, Cochin ginger, Cochlearia armoracia, Cocklebur, Common Borage, Common Bugloss, Common ginger, Corona de Cristo, Coumadin, Coumadin Injection, Cow Clover, Crack Willow, Cranberry, Curcuma, Curcuma species, Daidzein, Dalteparin Injection, Danaparoid Injection, Danggui, Danshen, Devil's Bush, Devil's Claw, Devil's Leaf, Diosma, Dipyridamole, Dipyridamole Injection, Dong Quai, Dropwort, Eleuthero, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Enoxaparin Injection, Eptifibatide, Evening Primrose, Fan Palm, Featherfew, Fenugreek, Feuille de Luzerna, Fever Plant, Feverfew, Filipendula ulmaria, Flaxseed, Flaxseed oil, Flirtwort, Fragmin, Funffing, Gan Cao, Garden ginger, Garlic, Ge Gen, Genuine chamomile, German Chamomile, German Mustard, Gingembre, Ginger, Ginkgo, Ginkgo Biloba, Ginseng, Panax, Glucosamine, Glucosamine Hydrochloride, Glucosamine Sulfate, Glycine max, Glycine soja, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Goat's Pod, Graine de lin, Granadilla, Grapple Plant, Great Raifort, Greek Clover, Greek Hay, Green Arrow, Guavaberry, Guigai, Gynostemma, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Harpagophytum procumbens, Heparin Injection, Herbe de Saint-Guillaume, Horse Chestnut, Horse Radish, Horseradish, Hu Lu Ba, Huang Ken, Hungarian chamomile, Imber, Indian Saffron, Innohep, Integrilin, Ipe Roxo, Ipes, Jamaican ginger, Jantoven, Japanese Arrowroot, Japanese Ginseng, Japanese Silver Apricot, Jiaogulan, Kava, Kava-Kava, Kawa, Kew, Kew Tree, Korean Ginseng, Kudzu, Lady of the Meadow, Lapacho, Leinsamen, Leopard's Bane, Licorice, Linseed, Linseed oil, Lint bells, Linum, Liquorice, Liverwort, Lovenox, Lucerne, Maidenhair Tree, Matricaria chamomilla, Maypop, MEL, Meadow Clover, Meadowsweet, Medicago, Medicago sativa, Melatonin, Methi, Mexican Chillies, Milfoil, Miracle Grass, MLT, Mossberry, Mountain Radish, Mountain Snuff, Mountain Tobacco, N-acetyl Glucosamine, N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, Nettle, Nettle Tops, Ninjin, Normiflo - No longer available, Nosebleed Plant, OEP, Oenothera species, Orgaran, Oriental Ginseng, Ox's Tongue, Panax Ginseng, Panax schinseng, Papain, Paprika, Passiflora incarnata, Passion Flower, Passion Vine, Pau D'arco, Pepperrot, Persantine, Persantine Injection, Piper methysticum, Plavix, Pletal, Pueraria, Pueraria lobata, Pueraria montana, Pueraria thunbergiana, Pulmonaria Officinalis, Purple Clover, Purple Medick, Pyrethrum parthenium, Queen of the Meadow, Radix Salvia, Red Clover, Red Cole, Red Ginseng, Red Pepper, Red Sage, ReoPro, Roman Chamomile, Roman Nettle, Rumberry, Russian Root, Rustic Treacle, Sabal, Sabal serrulata, Salix, Salix alba, Salix fragilis, Salix purpurea, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Salvia Root, Saw Palmetto, Scrub Palm, Seng, Serenoa, Serenoa repens, Shigoka, Siberian Ginseng, Southern Ginseng, Soy, Soya, Soybeans, Spirea, Spirea ulmaria, Starflower, Staunch Weed, Stickwort, Stinging Nettle, Stingnose, Stinking Rose, Sun Drop, Sweet Root, Tabasco Pepper, Tabebuia species, Taheebo, Taiga, Tanacetum parthenium, Tang-Kuei, Ten Shen, Thorny Pepperbush, Thousand-Leaf, Ticlid, Ticlopidine, Tinzaparin, Tirofiban, Tonga, Touch-Me-Not, Trefoil, Trifolium pratense, Trigonella, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Trumpet Bush, Turmeric, Urtica species, Vaccinium species, Vegetable pepsin, Vitis pentaphyllum, Warfarin, Warfarin injection, Water Lemon, White Willow, Wild Chamomile, Wild Clover, Wild Pepper, Wild Quinine, Winterlein, Wolf's Bane, Wolfbane, Wood Spider, Wound Wort, Xianxao, Yagona, Yarrow, Yarroway, Yege, Yinhsing, Zanzibar Pepper, Zingiber officinale.

Info about Red Wine Extract

Scientific Name: Grape Seed

Other Names: Grape Seed Extract, Muscat, Red Wine Extract, Vitis vinifera

Who is this for?

Grape seed extract contains chemicals known as polyphenols, (including the subclass of proanthocyanidins), which are recognized to be effective antioxidants. Substances thought to protect body cells from damage caused by a chemical process called oxidation, which produces oxygen free radicals; antioxidants are believed to work in a number of ways. They may lessen oxidation, they may inactivate oxygen free radicals, and/or they may restore at least some normal functioning to tissues damaged by oxygen free radicals.

For example, results from human case reports and some laboratory and animal studies appear to show that grape seed extract may help to prevent and treat heart diseases such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol. By limiting oxidation, antioxidants in grape seed extract may help prevent damage to blood vessels and other changes that may contribute to the development of heart disease. Substances in grape seed extract may also block the effects of enzymes that process fats – including cholesterol – from the diet. Less fat may be absorbed and more may be eliminated from the body. Other research shows that grape seed extract may help to prevent or control damage to body cells that is caused by drugs, pollution, tobacco, and other toxins. While all of these studies appear promising, much more research – including long-term studies in humans – is needed to confirm initial findings.

Proanthocyanidins are also believed to block the deterioration of blood vessels, therefore, grape seed extract may improve conditions involving veins and arteries. It has been used to prevent, delay, and treat a condition known as chronic venous insufficiency, which occurs when valves in the veins that carry blood back to the heart are weak or damaged. The blood that collects in the veins of the legs can lead to varicose veins, spider veins, or sores on the legs. Results that are more serious may include blood clots in the legs or sores that do not heal and may become infected. This blood vessel strengthening effect of grape seed extract may also help to prevent and treat hemorrhoids.

Since proanthocyanidins in grape seed extract strengthen the walls of all blood vessels, they may also help to keep damaged, stretched, or stiff blood vessels from leaking. In one area of research, grape seed extract may be effective for slowing retinopathy, the gradual break down of the retinas in the eyes – usually due to blood vessel damage. Individuals with arteriosclerosis (a build up of fatty deposits in the arteries), diabetes, or other conditions that increase the likelihood for damage to the small blood vessels in the eyes are more likely to have serious vision problems as a result of that damage. Grape seed extract may also reduce eye stress caused by bright lights. In studies of laboratory animals, it has shown some possible effectiveness in preventing cataract formation, but further study is needed to determine whether this effect may pertain to humans.

One of the polyphenols contained in grape seed extract is called resveratrol. In laboratory and animal studies, resveratrol from grape seeds has appeared to interfere with cancer cell growth and division, as well as causing some cancer cells to disintegrate faster than they would ordinarily. In addition, it may also block enzymes that prolong the survival of several cancer cell types. As a result, tumors may either stop growing or actually shrink because higher than usual numbers of cancer cells die. Therefore, resveratrol may have direct anticancer activity. It may also increase the effectiveness and/or lower the side effects of drugs currently used for cancer chemotherapy. One possible result is that taking resveratrol during chemotherapy may allow lower doses of cancer drugs to be effective, thereby limiting the potential for debilitating side effects. A similar effect was seen in laboratory studies of grape seed extract against HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Although the exact ways that grape seed extract may fight HIV and other viruses are not known, it is thought that grape seed extract interferes with viral multiplication, possibly by preventing viral attachment to host cells. How high doses of resveratrol and other chemicals in grape seed extract may affect normal human cells is not yet known.

Grape seed extract may also have topical uses. In preliminary research, grape seed extract appears to be moderately effective for preventing tooth decay. It is believed to delay or stop the breakdown of sugars in the mouth and also to inhibit the growth of certain oral bacteria that may play a role in forming dental cavities. In other studies, injuries to the skin of laboratory animals may have healed better when grape seed extract was applied. Through several possible effects that include promoting the regrowth of connective tissues, grape seed extract is believed to encourage faster, stronger healing with less scarring.

Oil pressed from grape seeds is used as a dietary supplement. It contains a relatively high percentage of linoleic acid, which belongs to a group of nutrients known as essential fatty acids (EFAs). The body needs EFAs to regulate activities that include heart function, insulin utilization, and mood balance. However, the body cannot produce EFAs, so they must be obtained from foods or dietary supplements. EFAs are thought to block the production of chemicals that promote the formation of deposits in the blood vessels. Consequently, blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels may be lowered and the risk of heart disease may decrease. Additional studies are needed to confirm the effects of both linoleic acid and grape seed oil for lowering the risk of heart disease.

When should I be careful taking it?

Not enough is known about how grape seed extract might affect a developing fetus or an infant to recommend its use during pregnancy or while breast-feeding.

What side effects should I watch for?

In clinical studies, taking grape seed extract has been associated with mild side effects such as:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Cough
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Sore throat

As with any dietary oil, taking large amounts of grape seed oil may lead to soft stools or oily leakage from the gastrointestinal tract.

What interactions should I watch for?

Prescription Drugs

Grape seed extract may possibly increase the time blood needs to clot. When it is taken with antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs, the effect of the drug may be increased, resulting in uncontrolled bleeding.

  • Antiplatelets include Plavix and Ticlid
  • Anticoagulants include heparin and warfarin

Non-prescription Drugs

Grape seed extract can affect the ability of blood to clot after an injury. Aspirin can also delay clotting, so grape seed extract should not be taken orally at the same time as aspirin.

Herbal Products

Theoretically, if grape seed extract is used with other herbs that affect blood clotting, bleeding may occur. Some of the most common herbal products that might inhibit blood clotting are:

  • Danshen
  • Devil's Claw
  • Eleuthero
  • Garlic
  • Ginger (in high amounts)
  • Gingko
  • Horse Chestnut
  • Panax Ginseng
  • Papain
  • Red Clover
  • Saw Palmetto

Some interactions between herbal products and medications can be more severe than others. The best way for you to avoid harmful interactions is to tell your doctor and/or pharmacist what medications you are currently taking, including any over-the-counter products, vitamins, and herbals.

Should I take it?

Among the waste products from the production of wine or grape juice are grape skins and seeds. Grape seeds may be collected from this residue and ground to release a mild oil that is popular for cooking because it has a high resistance to heat and therefore does not burn as much as other cooking oils. Grape seeds and sometimes grape skins, as well, may also be made into oral dosage forms for use as herbal medications.

Dosage and Administration

Note: In August 2004, the American Heart Association (AHA) published a scientific advisory warning that little evidence was found for the effectiveness of antioxidant vitamin supplements to prevent cardiovascular disease. While acknowledging the benefits of antioxidants, the scientists who prepared the AHA recommendation advise getting natural antioxidants from foods rather than from supplements. Additionally, some evidence from animal studies suggests that very high doses of antioxidants such as those in grape seed extract may actually increase damage from oxidation. Therefore, doses of supplemental antioxidants should be no higher than recommended by the manufacturer of the product.

Oral grape seed extract is available as capsules or tablets usually containing 50 mg or 100 mg. While recommended doses are different for specific uses, a common recommendation for maintaining general health is 50 mg to 200 mg per day. Some manufacturers suggest that doses should be higher for older individuals and some animal studies have found few side effects from extremely high doses. Because the effects of high doses on humans have not been documented, however, dosing should be limited to no more that recommended on the package of the product being taken.

Grape seed oil is available in bulk for use in preparing and cooking foods. No limits are placed on its use, but it does contain about 120 calories per tablespoon – comparable to other cooking oils. If it replaces normal use of other oils, grape seed oil should not present any problems. Adding it to the diet or taking excessive amounts of it may lead to obesity, however.

Summary

Oral grape seed extract is most used for strengthening blood vessel to treat conditions such as chronic venous insufficiency and retinopathy. As an antioxidant, it may also have effects against cancer, heart disease, viruses, and cell damage caused by toxic chemicals. Topically, grape seed extract may protect against dental cavities and promote wound healing. Oil pressed from grape seeds is a supplemental source of essential fatty acids.

Risks

Pregnant and breast-feeding women should not take grape seed extract, due to limited information about its potential effects on developing babies or infants.

Side Effects

Cough, headache, and nausea are among the side effects reported by participants in clinical studies of grape seed extract.

Interactions

Possibly, grape seed extract may increase the effects of drugs or herbal products that lessen the blood’s ability to form clots.

References

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Erexson GL. Lack of in vivo clastogenic activity of grape seed and grape skin extracts in a mouse micronucleus assay. Food Chemistry and Toxicology. 2003;41(3):347-350.

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Heredia A, Davis C, Redfield R. Synergistic inhibition of HIV-1 in activated and resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and selected drug-resistant isolates with nucleoside analogues combined with a natural product, resveratrol. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. 2000;25(3):246-255.

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Yeung F, Hoberg JE, Ramsey CS, Keller MD, Jones DR, Frye RA, Mayo MW. Modulation of NF- B-dependent transcription and cell survival by the SIRT1 deacetylase. European Molecular Biology Organization Journal. 2004;23(10):2369-2380.

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(Note: The above information is not intended to replace the advice of your physician, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional. It is not meant to indicate that the use of the product is safe, appropriate, or effective for you.)

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