2-Amino-2-Deoxyglucose, Abciximab Injection, Acarbose, Acetohexamide, Achillea, Achillea millefolium, Ackerkraut, Actoplus Met, Actos, African Pepper, Agathosma betulina, Aggrastat, Agoral Liquid, Agrimonia, Agrimonia eupatoria, Agrimony, Agrylin, Ague Tree, Airelle, Alant, Alder Buckthorn, Alder Dogwood, Alfalfa, Alhova, All Heal, AllerMax, Allium, Allium sativum, Aloe barbadensis, Aloe species, Aloe vera, Alprazolam Intensol, Alprazolam Oral Solution, Alprazolam tablets, Altamisa, Amachazuru, Amaryl, Amber Touch-and-Heal, Ambien, American Cranberry, American Ginseng, Amobarbital, Amorphophallus konjac, Amytal, Anagrelide, Anchi, Angelica polymorpha, Angelica sinensis, Anthemis nobilis, Antispasmodic Elixer, Apidra, Apricot Vine, Arandano, Ardeparin Sodium Injection--No longer available, Armoracia rusticana, Arnica, Arnica montana, Arrow Wood, Asclepias tuberosa, Asian Ginseng, Aspirin and Carisoprodol, Aspirin, Caffeine and Dihydrocodeine, Atropine, Hyoscyamine, Phenobarbital, and Scopolamine Oral, Atropine, Hyoscyamine, Phenobarbital, and Scopolamine Elixir, Avandamet, Avandia, Awa, Azucacaa, Baikal Scullcap, Baikal Skullcap Root, Bal, Baldarian, Balm Mint, Banophen, Banophen Allergy Elixir, Barley, Barley Grass, Barosma betulina, Basket Willow, Bdellium, Bee Bread, Bellacane SR, Belladonna Alkaloids, Ergotamine, and Phenobarbital Tablets, Bellaspas, Bellergal-S, Benadryl, Benadryl Injection, Benadryl Liquid, Benadryl Topical, Bilberry, Bird Lime, Bird Pepper, Bird's Foot, Bitter Bark, Black Dogwood, Black ginger, Black Psyllium, Black-Draught, Blond Psyllium, Bloodwort, Blowball, Bol, Borage, Borago officinalis, Bottle-brush, Bramhi, Bridewort, Bucco, Buchu, Buffered Aspirin and Pravastatin, Bugloss, Buku, Burn Plant, Butabarbital, Butabarbital Oral Elixir, Butisol, Butisol Elixir, Butterfly Weed, Cabbage Palm, Cacari, Caffeine, Aspirin and Dihydrocodeine, Calendula, Calendula officinalis, California Buckthorn, Camocamo, Camu-camu, Canada Root, Canadian Ginseng, Canker Wort, Canton ginger, Cape Aloe, Capim Doce, Capsicum, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Carica papaya, Carisoprodol Compound, Cascara, Cassia acutifolia, Cassia angustifolia, Cassia senna, Catmint, Catnep, Catnip, Catrup, Catswort, Centella asiatica, Chamomile, Chili Pepper, Chinese Angelica, Chinese Ginseng, Chinese Knotweed, Chinese Sage, Chitosamine, Chittem Bark, Chlordiazepoxide, Chlordiazepoxide and Clidinium Bromide, Chlordiazepoxide Injection, Chlorpropamide, Chondroitin, Chondroitin Sulfate, Chroma-Pak injection, Chromic Chloride injection, Chromium, Chromium 3, Chromium Acetate, Chromium Chloride, Chromium chloride injection, Chromium injection, Chromium Picolinate, Chrysanthemum parthenium, Church Steeples, Cilostazol, Cinnamon Wood, Climbing Knotweed, Clonazepam, Clonazepam Orally Disintegrating Tablets, Clopidogrel, Co Q 10, Cochin ginger, Cochlearia armoracia, Cocklebur, Coenzyme Q-10, Commiphora molmol, Commiphora myrrha, Common Borage, Common Buckthorn, Common Bugloss, Common ginger, Corona de Cristo, Coumadin, Coumadin Injection, Cow Clover, Crack Willow, Cranberry, Crataegus laevigata, Crataegus monogyna, Crataegus oxyacantha, Curcuma, Curcuma species, Daidzein, Dalmane, Dalteparin Injection, Damiana, Danaparoid Injection, Dandelion, Danggui, Danshen, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Devil's Claw, Devil's Fuge, Devil's Leaf, Devil's Tongue, DHEA, Diabeta, Diabinese, Diastat, Diazepam, Diazepam Injection, Diazepam Intensol, Diazepam Oral Solution, Diazepam Rectal Gel, Digitek, Digoxin, Digoxin Injection, Digoxin Liquid, Dihydrocodeine, Aspirin and Caffeine, Diosma, Diphen AF Liquid, Diphenhist, Diphenhydramine Injection, Diphenhydramine Liquid, Diphenhydramine Oral, Diphenhydramine Topical, Dipyridamole, Dipyridamole Injection, Docusate and Senna, Dog Wood, Dong Quai, Donnatal, Donnatal Elixir, Doral, Doxylamine, Dropwort, Dutch Rushes, Dyeberry, Dymelor, Elecampane, Elephant-foot Yam, Elf Dock, Elfwort, Enebro, Enoxaparin Injection, Ephedra, Ephedra sinica, Epitonin, Eptifibatide, Erva Doce, Estazolam, Eucalyptus, European Blueberry, European Buckthorn, European Mistletoe, Evening Primrose, Exlax, Exlax Chocolated, Eyebalm, Fan Palm, Featherfew, Fenugreek, Feuille de Luzerna, Fever Plant, Feverfew, Field Balm, Field Wort, Filipendula ulmaria, Five Fingers, Flaxseed, Flaxseed oil, Flea Seed, Flirtwort, Flowery Knotweed, Flurazepam, Flux Root, Fo-Ti, Folergot-DF, Fortamet, Fragmin, Frangula Bark, Funffing, Gan Cao, Garden ginger, Garden Heliotrope, Garden Marigold, Garlic, Ge Gen, Genahist, Genahist Liquid, Genevrier, Genuine chamomile, German Chamomile, German Mustard, Ginepro, Gingembre, Ginger, Ginkgo, Ginkgo Biloba, Ginseng, American, Ginseng, Panax, GL701, Glimepiride, Glipizide, Glipizide and Metformin, Glipizide Extended-Release, Glossy Buckthorn, Glucomannan, Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glucosamine, Glucosamine Hydrochloride, Glucosamine Sulfate, Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL, Glucovance, Glyburide, Glyburide and Metformin, Glycine max, Glycine soja, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glynase, Glyset, Goat's Pod, Gold Bloom, Golden Bough, Golden Marigold, Goldenseal, Gotu Kola, Graine de lin, Granadilla, Grape Seed, Grape Seed Extract, Grapple Plant, Great Raifort, Greek Clover, Greek Hay, Green Arrow, Ground Raspberry, Guavaberry, Guggal Resin, Guigai, Gum Myrrh, Gurmar, Gymnema sylvestre, Gynostemma, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, Hagedorn, Halcion, Hardhay, Harpagophytum procumbens, Hartshorn, Haw, Hawthorn, He Shou Wu, Hedgethorn, Heerabol, Heparin Injection, Herb de la Croix, Herba de la pastora, Herbal Ecstasy, Herbe de Saint-Guillaume, Highwaythorn, Holligold, Hops, Hordeum vulgare, Horse Chestnut, Horse Radish, Horse-elder, Horseheal, Horseradish, Horsetail, Houblon, Hu Lu Ba, Huang Ken, Huang Qin, Huckleberry, Humalog, Humalog Mix 75/25, Humulin, Humulin 50/50, Humulin 70/30, Humulus lupulus, Hungarian chamomile, Hwanggum, Hydrocotyle asiatica, Hyosophen Elixer, Hypericum, Hypericum perforatum, Iletin II, Iletin II Mixed, Imber, Indian Pennywort, Indian Saffron, Innohep, Insulin - Mixed, Insulin glulisine, Insulin injection, Insulin Lispro, Integrilin, Inula helenium, Ipe Roxo, Ipes, Irish Daisy, Isphagula, Jamaican ginger, Jantoven, Japanese Arrowroot, Japanese Ginseng, Japanese Silver Apricot, Jiaogulan, Juniper, Juniperus communis, Kaa Jhee, Kava, Kava-Kava, Kawa, Kew, Kew Tree, Khao Yen, Klamath Weed, Klonopin, Klonopin Wafer, Konjac, Konjac Mannan, Konnyaku, Korean Ginseng, Kudzu, Kuli, L-tryptophan, Lady of the Meadow, Lanoxicaps, Lanoxin, Lanoxin Injection, Lanoxin Liquid, Lapacho, Leinsamen, Lemon Balm, Leonurus cardiaca, Leopard's Bane, Leotodon taraxacum, Librax, Libritabs, Librium, Librium Injection, Licorice, Lignum Crucis, Linseed, Linseed oil, Lint bells, Linum, Lion's Ear, Lion's Tail, Lion's Tooth, Liquorice, Liverwort, Lovenox, Lucerne, Luminal Sodium, Lupulin, Ma Huang, Mahuang, Mai Ya, Maidenhair Tree, Marsh Penny, Marybud, Matricaria chamomilla, Maxiumum Relief Exlax, Mayblossom, Maybush, Mayflower, Maypop, MEL, Meadow Clover, Meadowsweet, Mebaral, Medicago, Medicago sativa, Melatonin, Melissa, Melissa officinalis, Mephobarbital, Merasingi, Metaglip, Metformin, Metformin Extended-Release, Metformin Oral Solution, Methi, Mexican Chillies, Mexican damiana, Micronase, Midazolam Injection, Midazolam Syrup, Miglitol, Milfoil, Millepertuis, Miracle Grass, Mistal, Mistletoe, Mitoquinone, Mizibcoc, MLT, Mo Yao, Mossberry, Motherwort, Mountain Radish, Mountain Snuff, Mountain Tobacco, Muscat, Muzei, Myrrh, N-acetyl Glucosamine, N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, Nembutal Elixir, Nembutal Injection, Nembutal Oral, Nembutal Sodium, Nepeta cataria, Nettle, Nettle Tops, Ninjin, Niravam, Nopal, Normiflo - No longer available, North American Ginseng, Nosebleed Plant, NovoLog Mix, Novolin, Novolin 70/30, OEP, Oenothera species, Ogon, Old woman's broom, Oleae europaea, Oleae folium, Oleum olivae, Olive Leaf, Olive Oil, Olivier, Opopanax, Opuntia species, Orange Milkweed, Orange Swallow-wort, Orangeroot, Orgaran, Oriental Ginseng, Orinase, Ox's Tongue, Paddock-pipes, Panax Ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, Panax schinseng, Papain, Paprika, Passiflora incarnata, Passion Flower, Passion Vine, Pau D'arco, Pearl Barley, Pentobarbital Injection, Pentobarbital Elixir, Pentobarbital Oral, Pentobarbital Suppositories, Pepperrot, Peri-Colace, Persantine, Persantine Injection, Pewterwort, Phenerbel-S, Phenobarbital, Phenobarbital Elixir, Phenobarbital Injection, Pioglitazone, Pioglitazone and Metformin, Piper methysticum, Plantago species, Plantain Seed, Plavix, Pletal, Pleurisy root, Polygonum multiflorum, Popptillo, Pot Marigold, Prandin, Prasterone, Pravigard PAC, Precose, Prickly Pear Cactus, ProSom, Psyllium Seed, Pueraria, Pueraria lobata, Pueraria montana, Pueraria thunbergiana, Puffball, Pulmonaria Officinalis, Purging Buckthorn, Purple Clover, Purple Medick, Purshiana Bark, Pushkarmoola, Pyrethrum parthenium, Q 10, Quazapam, Queen of the Meadow, Radix Salvia, Ramsthorn, Red Berry, Red Clover, Red Cole, Red Ginseng, Red Pepper, Red Sage, Red Wine Extract, Ren Shen, ReoPro, Repaglinide, Restoril, Rhamnus cathartica, Rhamnus frangula, Rhamnus purshiana, Riomet, Roman Chamomile, Roman Nettle, Rosiglitazone, Rosiglitazone and Metformin, Rosin Rose, Rumberry, Rustic Treacle, Sabal, Sabal serrulata, Sacred Bark, Sagrada Bark, Salix, Salix alba, Salix fragilis, Salix purpurea, Saloop, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Salvia Root, Sarisol No.2, Sarsa, Sarsaparilla, Sassafras, Sassafras albidum, Sassafras officinale, Saw Palmetto, Saxifras, Scabwort, Scotch Barley, Scouring Rush, Scrub Palm, Scute, Scutellaria baicalensis, Secobarbital, Seconal, Senexon, Seng, Senna, Senna Laxatives, Senna Oral Syrup, Senna Suppositories, Senna-Gen, Senokot, Senokot Suppositories, Senokot Syrup, Senokot XTRA, Senokot-S, Serenoa, Serenoa repens, Shave-grass, Siladryl Elixir, Silkweed, SJW, Smilace, Smilax, Smilax aristolochiifolia, Smilax officinalis, Smilax regelii, Smilax sarsaparilla, Snake Plant, Sodol Compound, Solfoton, Soma Compound, Sonata, Southern Ginseng, Soy, Soya, Soybeans, Spastrin, Spirea, Spirea ulmaria, St. John's Wort, Starflower, Staunch Weed, Stevia, Stevia eupatorium, Stevia rebaudiana, Stickwort, Stinging Nettle, Stingnose, Stinking Rose, Sun Drop, Swallow-wort, Sweet Balm, Sweet Herb, Sweet Oil, Sweet Root, Sweetleaf, Synalgos-DC, Tabasco Pepper, Tabebuia species, Taheebo, Tanacetum parthenium, Tang-Kuei, Taraxacum officinale, Temazepam, Ten Shen, Thousand-Leaf, Throw-wort, Ticlid, Ticlopidine, Tinzaparin, Tipton Weed, Tirofiban, Toadpipe, Tolazamide, Tolbutamide, Tolinase, Tonga, Trefoil, Triazolam, Trifolium pratense, Trigonella, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Trivalent Chromium, Trumpet Bush, Tryptophan, Tuber Root, Turmeric, Turnera diffusa, Tusstat Syrup, Ubidecarenone, Ubiquinone, Unisom, Urtica species, Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium species, Valerian, Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sambucifolia, Valeriana wallichi, Valeriane, Valium, Valium Injection, Vegetable pepsin, Velosulin, Velvet Dock, Versed, Versed Syrup, Viscum, Viscum album, Vitamin Q, Vitis pentaphyllum, Vitis vinifera, Vogelmistel, Wacholder, Warfarin, Warfarin injection, Water Lemon, Waythorn, White Root, White Willow, Whitethorn, Whortleberry, Wild Chamomile, Wild Clover, Wild Endive, Wild Quinine, Wild Root, Wild Sunflower, Wineberry, Winterlein, Wogon, Wolf's Bane, Wolfbane, Wood Spider, Wound Wort, Xanax, Xianxao, Yagona, Yarrow, Yarroway, Yege, Yellow Starwort, Yellowroot, Yerba Dulce, Yinhsing, Zaleplon, Zanzibar Pepper, Zingiber officinale, Zolpidem.
Using of Wild Pepper
Scientific Name: Eleuthero
Other Names: Acanthopanax senticosus, Ci Wu Jia, Devil's Bush, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Russian Root, Shigoka, Siberian Ginseng, Taiga, Thorny Pepperbush, Touch-Me-Not, Wild Pepper
Who is this for?
NOTE: Eleuthero is different from both American ginseng and Panax ginseng. They are not interchangeable.
Products formerly labeled as Siberian ginseng must now use the common name Eleuthero or the scientific name Eleutherococcus senticosus.
Like members of the Panax (true ginseng) family of plants, eleuthero is considered to be an adaptogen, a substance that may help individuals cope with physical and emotional stress. It is also used widely in eastern Asia to increase the capability to do physical work However, results from several studies on physical performance are inconclusive with work capacity increased in some instances but actually decreased in others.
Other findings that are more positive have resulted from animal and human studies of eleutheros other potential effects. Chemicals in eleuthero appear to produce moderate reductions in blood sugar and blood cholesterol levels and modest improvements in memory and concentration. Eleuthero may also have mild estrogenic effects, and it appears to boost immune system function slightly. In laboratory studies, various chemicals found in eleuthero have also shown antiviral and anticancer properties, but these effects have not been well studied in humans. All of these possible uses need to be studied further before eleuthero can be recommended.
When should I be careful taking it?
In clinical studies of both humans and animals, eleuthero has increased the heart rate or increased blood pressure. Both of these effects may worsen many types of heart conditions. Individuals who have heart disease, including high blood pressure and previous heart attacks, should not take eleuthero without supervision from a healthcare professional.
Even though eleuthero appears to be safe during pregnancy and breast-feeding, some of the other plants commonly mistaken for eleuthero are known to be harmful to developing babies or small children. Because the exact contents of eleuthero products cannot always be guaranteed, young children and pregnant and breast-feeding women should avoid the use of eleuthero.
Individuals with diabetes should avoid using large amounts of eleuthero because it can lower blood sugar levels, potentially resulting in hypoglycemia (blood sugar that is too low). Indications of low blood sugar include shakiness, sweating, confusion, distorted speech, and loss of muscle control. If not corrected, low blood sugar can lead to unconsciousness and even death.
What side effects should I watch for?
Individuals with heart disease who take eleuthero may experience a rapid heartbeat or high blood pressure. Long-term use (more than 2 months) of eleuthero has been associated with muscle spasms due to nerve inflammation. Therefore, taking eleuthero continuously for more than 2 months is not recommended.
Less Severe Side Effects
In studies involving humans, the most commonly reported side effects from eleuthero were:
What interactions should I watch for?
Digoxin is a drug used to increase the force and to decrease the rate of heartbeats. In one reported case, an individual taking eleuthero at the same time as digoxin, developed increased blood levels of digoxin. No serious consequences resulted, but high digoxin blood levels could cause potentially dangerous changes in heart rhythm.
In laboratory studies, eleuthero has been shown to increase the time blood needs to clot. When it is taken with antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs, the effect of the drug may be increased, resulting in uncontrolled bleeding.
Eleuthero may interfere with insulin and oral drugs for diabetes, such as:
When eleuthero is taken with prescription drugs that promote sleepiness, the effects of the drug may be exaggerated, resulting in sedation or mental impairment. Prescription drugs that can cause sleepiness include:
Because it is broken down by certain enzymes in the liver, eleuthero may possibly interfere with the use of prescription drugs that are processed by the same enzymes. Some of these drugs are:
Eleuthero can affect the ability of blood to clot after an injury. Aspirin can also delay clotting, so eleuthero should not be taken at the same time as aspirin.
The sleep-producing effects of over-the-counter products containing diphenhydramine can be enhanced by taking eleuthero at the same time. Diphenhydramine is contained in many non-prescription sleeping pills as well as in some cough and cold products, therefore caution should be used when taking these medications with eleuthero because excessive drowsiness may result.
Theoretically, if eleuthero is used with other herbs that affect blood clotting, bleeding may occur. Some of the most common herbal products that might inhibit blood clotting include:
Because eleuthero may decrease blood sugar levels, taking it with other blood sugar-lowering herbal products may result in hypoglycemia blood sugar that is too low. Herbals that may reduce blood sugar include:
Eleuthero may cause excessive sedation if taken with other sedating herbs such as:
Drinking alcohol at the same time as taking eleuthero may result in increased drowsiness.
A few individuals have reported indigestion or altered taste perception after eating spicy or bitter-tasting foods while taking eleuthero.
Some interactions between herbal products and medications can be more severe than others. The best way for you to avoid harmful interactions is to tell your doctor and/or pharmacist what medications you are currently taking, including any over-the-counter products, vitamins, and herbals.
Should I take it?
Among its provisions, the U.S. Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 made illegal the use of the name ginseng for any product not derived from a plant of the Panax genus (family). Eleuthero is related to American ginseng and Panax ginseng, but it is not a member of the Panax genus. In the United States, products formerly labeled as Siberian ginseng must now use the common name Eleuthero or the scientific name Eleutherococcus senticosus.
Although it was formerly known as Siberian ginseng, eleuthero is not actually a member of the plant family considered to contain the true ginsengs. It is, instead, a related shrub about 6 to 8 feet tall. Its branches are covered in sharp thorn-like barbs. The leaves of eleuthero may be dried and used as tea. Eleuthero blooms in late summer and then bears very dark red or black fruits the size of marbles. The fruits may be eaten fresh or cooked. While the roots of Panax species resemble carrots or parsnips in texture, the roots of eleuthero are hard and woody. Native to eastern Asia, eleuthero is now grown extensively on farms in China, Korea, Japan, and Russia.
Eleuthero did not come into wide use until the mid-1900s when the world supply of Panax species was extremely low. Russian and Chinese scientists discovered that other species particularly Eleutherococcus had medicinal effects that are similar to ginsengs, but could be grown faster. Nearly all the research done on eleuthero has been done in Asia.
Dosage and Administration
Eleuthero is available in a number of different oral dosage forms that include liquid extracts and capsules containing dried root powder. Many eleuthero products are standardized to contain 0.3% of an active ingredient called eleutheroside E. Standardization by the manufacturer should assure the same amount of this active ingredient in every batch of commercial preparations. Be aware, however, that the amounts of active chemicals in eleuthero vary greatly according to how the plants are grown, when the roots are harvested, and how they are processed. Several plants that resemble eleuthero grow in the same regions, so eleuthero frequently may be contaminated with material from those different plants.
Dosing for eleuthero depends on the condition being treated. If you decide to use eleuthero, follow the directions on the package you purchase. Taking eleuthero continuously for more than 2 months is not recommended.
Best known as a general tonic to improve overall mental and physical health, eleuthero may produce modest improvements in immune function and memory. It may reduce blood levels of sugar and cholesterol, slightly. Other possible uses need to be investigated more thoroughly before they can be recommended.
Individuals with heart conditions, pregnant women, small children, and women who are breast-feeding should not take eleuthero. It should be taken with caution by individuals who have diabetes.
Long-term use of eleuthero may result in muscle spasms. It may cause rapid heartbeats, high blood pressure, anxiety, and drowsiness.
Eleuthero may interact in various ways with many drugs and other herbal products, including:
Last Revision October 19, 2004
Asano K, Takahashi T, Miyashita M, et al. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus extract on human physical working capacity. Planta Medica. 1986;(3):175-177.
Awang DV. Siberian ginseng toxicity may be case of mistaken identity. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1996;155(9):1237.
Awang DV. What in the name of Panax are those other ginsengs? HerbalGram. 2003;57:35-40.
Baranov AI. Medicinal uses of ginseng and related plants in the Soviet Union: recent trends in the Soviet literature. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1982;6(3):339-353.
Bazaz'ian GG, Liapina LA, Pastorova VE, Zvereva EG. Effect of Eleutherococcus on the functional status of the anticoagulation system in older animals. [article in Russian] Fiziol Zh SSSR Im I M Sechenova. 1987;73(10):1390-1395.
Blumenthal M. Farm bill bans use of name ginseng on non-Panax species: Siberian ginseng no longer allowed as commercial term [press release]. Austin, Texas: American Botanical Council; Fall 2002.
Cicero AF, Derosa G, Brillante R, Bernardi R, Nascetti S, Gaddi A. Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.) on elderly quality of life: a randomized clinical trial. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics Supplement. 2004;(9):69-73.
Dasgupta A, Wu S, Actor J, Olsen M, Wells A, Datta P. Effect of Asian and Siberian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by five digoxin immunoassays. Significant variation in digoxin-like immunoreactivity among commercial ginsengs. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2003;119(2):298-303.
Davydov M, Krikorian AD. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000;72(3):345-393.
Deyama T, Nishibe S, Nakazawa Y. Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001;22(12):1057-1070.
Donovan JL, DeVane CL, Chavin KD, Taylor RM, Markowitz JS. Siberian ginseng (Eleutheroccus [sic] senticosus) effects on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 activity in normal volunteers. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 2003;31(5):519-522.
Dowling EA, Redondo DR, Branch JD, Jones S, McNabb G, Williams MH. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus on submaximal and maximal exercise performance. Medical Science in Sports and Exercise. 1996;28:482-489.
Drozd J, Sawicka T, Prosinska J. Estimation of humoral activity of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Acta Pol Pharm. 2002;59(5):395-401.
Eschbach LF, Webster MJ, Boyd JC, McArthur PD, Evetovich TK. The effect of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) on substrate utilization and performance. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2000;10(4):444-451.
Gaffney BT, Hugel HM, Rich PA. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sciences. 2001;70(4):431-442.
Gaffney BT, Hugel HM, Rich PA. Panax ginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus may exaggerate an already existing biphasic response to stress via inhibition of enzymes which limit the binding of stress hormones to their receptors. Medical Hypotheses. 2001;56(5):567-572.
Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Sacher F, Esperester A. Antiviral activity of an extract derived from roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Antiviral Research. 2001;50(3):223-228.
Hacker B, Medon PJ. Cytotoxic effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus aqueous extracts in combination with N6-(delta 2-isopentenyl)-adenosine and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine against L1210 leukemia cells. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 1984;73(2):270-272.
Harkey MR, Henderson GL, Gershwin ME, et al. Variability in commercial ginseng products: an analysis of 25 preparations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001;73(6):1101-1106.
Harkey MR, Henderson GL, Zhou L, et al. Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) on c-DNA-expressed P450 drug metabolizing enzymes. Alternative Therapy. 2001;7:S14.
Hartz AJ, Bentler S, Noyes R, et al. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychological Medicine. 2004;34(1):51-61.
HealthNotes, Inc. Eleuthero. 2002. Available at: http://www.mycustompak.com/healthNotes/Herb/Eleuthero.htm Accessed March 28, 2003.
Henderson GL, Harkey MR, Gershwin ME, Hackman RM, Stern JS, Stresser DM Effects of ginseng components on c-DNA-expressed cytochrome P450 enzyme catalytic activity. Life Sciences. 1999;65(15):PL209-PL214.
Hikino H, Takahashi M, Otake K, Konno C. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of eleutherans A, B, C, D, E, F, and G: glycans of Eleutherococcus senticosus roots. Journal of Natural Products. 1986;49(2):293-297.
Jellin JM, Gregory P, Batz F, Hitchens K, et al, eds. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 3rd Edition. Stockton CA: Therapeutic Research Facility, 2000.
Jeong HJ, Koo HN, Myung NI, et al. Inhibitory effects of mast cell-mediated allergic reactions by cell cultured Siberian Ginseng. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. 2001;23(1):107-117.
Kwan CY, Zhang WB, Sim SM, Deyama T, Nishibe S. Vascular effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): endothelium-dependent NO- and EDHF-mediated relaxation depending on vessel size. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2004;369(5):473-480.
Lewis WH, Zenger VE, Lynch RG. No adaptogen response of mice to ginseng and Eleutherococcus infusions. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1983;8(2):209-214.
McRae S. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1996;155(3):293-295.
Medon PJ, Ferguson PW, Watson CF. Effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on hexobarbital metabolism in vivo and in vitro. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1984;10(2):235-241.
Park EJ, Nan JX, Zhao YZ, et al. Water-soluble polysaccharide from Eleutherococcus senticosus stems attenuates fulminant hepatic failure induced by D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide in mice. Basic Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2004;94(6):298-304.
Rogala E, Skopinska-Rozewska E, Sawicka T, Sommer E, Prosinska J, Drozd J. The influence of Eleuterococcus [sic] senticosus on cellular and humoral immunological response of mice. Polish Journal of Veterinary Science. 2003;6(Suppl 3):37-39.
Scholz MW, Sacher F, Aicher B. The synthesis of RANTES, G-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12, and IL-13 in human whole blood cultures is modulated by an extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus L. roots. Phytotherapy Research. 2001;15:268-270.
Shi Z, Liu C, Li R. Effect of a mixture of Acanthopanax senticosus and Elsholtzia splendens on serum-lipids in patients with hyperlipemia. [Article in Chinese] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1990;10(3):132 and 155-156.
Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. Decreasing, null and increasing effects of eight popular types of ginseng on acute postprandial glycemic indices in healthy humans: the role of ginsenosides. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2004;23(3):248-258.
Szolomicki S, Samochowiec L, Wojcicki J, Drozdzik M. The influence of active components of Eleutherococcus senticosus on cellular defense and physical fitness in man. Phytotherapy Research. 2000;14(3):30-35.
Tutel'yan AV, Klebanov GI, Il'ina SE, Lyubitskii OB. Comparative study of antioxidant properties of immunoregulatory peptides. Bulletin of Experimental Biology in Medicine. 2003;136(2):155-158.
Wang H, Actor JK, Indrigo J, Olsen M, Dasgupta A. Asian and Siberian ginseng as a potential modulator of immune function: an in vitro cytokine study using mouse macrophages. Clinica Chimica Acta. 2003;327(1-2):123-128.
Webb D. Eleuthero a detailed review of its reputed effect as an adaptogen. HerbalGram. February 6, 2001.
Yi JM, Hong SH, Kim JH, Kim HK, Song HJ, Kim HM. Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus stem on mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2002;79(3):347-352.
Zand J. Siberian ginseng. The herb for energy and stress. Health World Online. No date given. Available at: http://healthy .net/asp/templates/article.asp?PageType=Article& ID=917. Accessed May 23, 2003.
(Note: The above information is not intended to replace the advice of your physician, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional. It is not meant to indicate that the use of the product is safe, appropriate, or effective for you.)