2-Amino-2-Deoxyglucose, Acanthopanax senticosus, Acarbose, Acetohexamide, Achillea, Achillea millefolium, Ackerkraut, Actoplus Met, Actos, African Pepper, Agrimonia, Agrimonia eupatoria, Agrimony, Ague Tree, Airelle, Alant, Alfalfa, Alhova, AllerMax, Allium, Allium sativum, Aloe barbadensis, Aloe species, Aloe vera, Alprazolam Intensol, Alprazolam Oral Solution, Alprazolam tablets, Amaryl, Amber Touch-and-Heal, Ambien, American Ginseng, Amobarbital, Amorphophallus konjac, Amytal, Anchi, Anthemis nobilis, Antispasmodic Elixer, Apidra, Apricot Vine, Asian Ginseng, Atropine, Hyoscyamine, Phenobarbital, and Scopolamine Oral, Atropine, Hyoscyamine, Phenobarbital, and Scopolamine Elixir, Avandamet, Avandia, Awa, Azucacaa, Bal, Baldarian, Balm Mint, Banophen, Banophen Allergy Elixir, Barley, Barley Grass, Basket Willow, Bdellium, Bellacane SR, Belladonna Alkaloids, Ergotamine, and Phenobarbital Tablets, Bellaspas, Bellergal-S, Benadryl, Benadryl Injection, Benadryl Liquid, Benadryl Topical, Bilberry, Bird Pepper, Bird's Foot, Black ginger, Black Psyllium, Blond Psyllium, Bloodwort, Blowball, Bol, Bramhi, Burn Plant, Butabarbital, Butabarbital Oral Elixir, Butisol, Butisol Elixir, Calendula, Calendula officinalis, Canadian Ginseng, Canker Wort, Canton ginger, Cape Aloe, Capim Doce, Capsicum, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Catmint, Catnep, Catnip, Catrup, Catswort, Centella asiatica, Chamomile, Chili Pepper, Chinese Ginseng, Chitosamine, Chlordiazepoxide, Chlordiazepoxide and Clidinium Bromide, Chlordiazepoxide Injection, Chlorpropamide, Chroma-Pak injection, Chromic Chloride injection, Chromium, Chromium 3, Chromium Acetate, Chromium Chloride, Chromium chloride injection, Chromium injection, Chromium Picolinate, Church Steeples, Ci Wu Jia, Cinnamon Wood, Clonazepam, Clonazepam Orally Disintegrating Tablets, Clorazepate, Co Q 10, Cochin ginger, Cocklebur, Coenzyme Q-10, Commiphora molmol, Commiphora myrrha, Common ginger, Corona de Cristo, Crack Willow, Curcuma, Curcuma species, Daidzein, Dalmane, Damiana, Dandelion, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Devil's Bush, Devil's Claw, Devil's Leaf, Devil's Tongue, DHEA, Diabeta, Diabinese, Diastat, Diazepam, Diazepam Injection, Diazepam Intensol, Diazepam Oral Solution, Diazepam Rectal Gel, Diphen AF Liquid, Diphenhist, Diphenhydramine Injection, Diphenhydramine Liquid, Diphenhydramine Oral, Diphenhydramine Topical, Donnatal, Donnatal Elixir, Doral, Doxylamine, Dyeberry, Dymelor, Elecampane, Elephant-foot Yam, Eleuthero, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Elf Dock, Elfwort, Enebro, Erva Doce, Estazolam, Eucalyptus, European Blueberry, Eyebalm, Fenugreek, Feuille de Luzerna, Field Balm, Field Wort, Five Fingers, Flea Seed, Flurazepam, Folergot-DF, Fortamet, Funffing, Garden ginger, Garden Heliotrope, Garden Marigold, Garlic, Ge Gen, Genahist, Genahist Liquid, Genevrier, Genuine chamomile, German Chamomile, Ginepro, Gingembre, Ginger, Ginkgo, Ginkgo Biloba, Ginseng, American, Ginseng, Panax, GL701, Glimepiride, Glipizide, Glipizide and Metformin, Glipizide Extended-Release, Glucomannan, Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Glucosamine, Glucosamine Hydrochloride, Glucosamine Sulfate, Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL, Glucovance, Glyburide, Glyburide and Metformin, Glynase, Glyset, Goat's Pod, Gold Bloom, Golden Marigold, Goldenseal, Gotu Kola, Granadilla, Grapple Plant, Greek Clover, Greek Hay, Green Arrow, Ground Raspberry, Guggal Resin, Guigai, Gum Myrrh, Gurmar, Gymnema sylvestre, Halcion, Hardhay, Harpagophytum procumbens, Heerabol, Herba de la pastora, Herbe de Saint-Guillaume, Holligold, Hops, Hordeum vulgare, Horse-elder, Horseheal, Houblon, Hu Lu Ba, Huckleberry, Humalog, Humalog Mix 75/25, Humulin, Humulin 50/50, Humulin 70/30, Humulus lupulus, Hungarian chamomile, Hydrocotyle asiatica, Hyosophen Elixer, Hypericum, Hypericum perforatum, Iletin II, Iletin II Mixed, Imber, Indian Pennywort, Indian Saffron, Insulin - Mixed, Insulin glulisine, Insulin injection, Insulin Lispro, Inula helenium, Irish Daisy, Isphagula, Jamaican ginger, Japanese Arrowroot, Japanese Ginseng, Japanese Silver Apricot, Juniper, Juniperus communis, Kaa Jhee, Kava, Kava-Kava, Kawa, Kew, Kew Tree, Klamath Weed, Klonopin, Klonopin Wafer, Konjac, Konjac Mannan, Konnyaku, Korean Ginseng, Kudzu, Kuli, L-tryptophan, Lemon Balm, Leonurus cardiaca, Leotodon taraxacum, Librax, Libritabs, Librium, Librium Injection, Lion's Ear, Lion's Tail, Lion's Tooth, Liverwort, Lucerne, Luminal Sodium, Lupulin, Mai Ya, Maidenhair Tree, Marsh Penny, Marybud, Matricaria chamomilla, Maypop, MEL, Mebaral, Medicago, Medicago sativa, Melatonin, Melissa, Melissa officinalis, Mephobarbital, Merasingi, Metaglip, Metformin, Metformin Extended-Release, Metformin Oral Solution, Methi, Mexican Chillies, Mexican damiana, Micronase, Midazolam Injection, Midazolam Syrup, Miglitol, Milfoil, Millepertuis, Mitoquinone, Mizibcoc, MLT, Mo Yao, Motherwort, Myrrh, N-acetyl Glucosamine, N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, Nembutal Elixir, Nembutal Injection, Nembutal Oral, Nembutal Sodium, Nepeta cataria, Nettle, Nettle Tops, Ninjin, Niravam, Nopal, North American Ginseng, Nosebleed Plant, NovoLog Mix, Novolin, Novolin 70/30, Old woman's broom, Oleae europaea, Oleae folium, Oleum olivae, Olive Leaf, Olive Oil, Olivier, Opopanax, Opuntia species, Orangeroot, Oriental Ginseng, Orinase, Panax Ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, Panax schinseng, Paprika, Passiflora incarnata, Passion Flower, Passion Vine, Pearl Barley, Pentobarbital Injection, Pentobarbital Elixir, Pentobarbital Oral, Pentobarbital Suppositories, Phenerbel-S, Phenobarbital, Phenobarbital Elixir, Phenobarbital Injection, Pioglitazone, Pioglitazone and Metformin, Piper methysticum, Plantago species, Plantain Seed, Pot Marigold, Prandin, Prasterone, Precose, Prickly Pear Cactus, ProSom, Psyllium Seed, Pueraria, Pueraria lobata, Pueraria montana, Pueraria thunbergiana, Puffball, Purple Medick, Pushkarmoola, Q 10, Quazapam, Red Berry, Red Ginseng, Red Pepper, Ren Shen, Repaglinide, Restoril, Riomet, Roman Chamomile, Roman Nettle, Rosiglitazone, Rosiglitazone and Metformin, Rosin Rose, Russian Root, Rustic Treacle, Salix, Salix alba, Salix fragilis, Salix purpurea, Saloop, Sarisol No.2, Sassafras, Sassafras albidum, Sassafras officinale, Saxifras, Scabwort, Scotch Barley, Secobarbital, Seconal, Seng, Shigoka, Siberian Ginseng, Siladryl Elixir, SJW, Snake Plant, Solfoton, Sonata, Spastrin, St. John's Wort, Staunch Weed, Stevia, Stevia eupatorium, Stevia rebaudiana, Stickwort, Stinging Nettle, Stinking Rose, Sweet Balm, Sweet Herb, Sweet Oil, Sweetleaf, Tabasco Pepper, Taiga, Taraxacum officinale, Temazepam, Thorny Pepperbush, Thousand-Leaf, Throw-wort, Tipton Weed, Tolazamide, Tolbutamide, Tolinase, Tonga, Touch-Me-Not, Tranxene, Tranxene T, Tranxene-SD, Triazolam, Trigonella, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Trivalent Chromium, Tryptophan, Turmeric, Turnera diffusa, Tusstat Syrup, Ubidecarenone, Ubiquinone, Unisom, Urtica species, Vaccinium myrtillus, Valerian, Valeriana officinalis, Valeriana sambucifolia, Valeriana wallichi, Valeriane, Valium, Valium Injection, Velosulin, Velvet Dock, Versed, Versed Syrup, Vitamin Q, Wacholder, Water Lemon, White Willow, Whortleberry, Wild Endive, Wild Pepper, Wild Sunflower, Wineberry, Wood Spider, Wound Wort, Xanax, Yagona, Yarrow, Yarroway, Yege, Yellow Starwort, Yellowroot, Yerba Dulce, Yinhsing, Zaleplon, Zanzibar Pepper, Zingiber officinale, Zolpidem.
Application of Wogon
Scientific Name: Baikal Scullcap
Other Names: Baikal Skullcap Root, Huang Qin, Hwanggum, Ogon, Scute, Scutellaria baicalensis, Wogon
Who is this for?
Note: Baikal or Chinese scullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) is different from a related plant called American scullcap (Scutellaria laterifolia).
Baikal scullcap was among seven ingredients in a combination oral herbal product known as PC-SPES that was used to treat prostate cancer. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiated a nationwide recall of all PC-SPES in 2002 because the capsules were found to contain varying amounts of prescription drugs.
Other combination formulas containing Baikal scullcap are used in Asian medicine to improve impaired brain function and to treat headaches.
Baicalin, one chemical found in Baikal scullcap, is known to be anti-inflammatory. It is also antifungal, particularly for Candida, and it also seems to have antiviral properties; including possible effectiveness against HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. In animal studies, Baikal scullcap also has shown some effectiveness against diabetes and high blood pressure, but none of these effects has been studied in humans.
When should I be careful taking it?
PC-SPES should not be used.
Due to unpredictable effects on stomach function, individuals with stomach or spleen disorders should not take Baikal scullcap.
Individuals with diabetes should avoid using Baikal scullcap because it blocks an enzyme that breaks down starches in the intestines. As a result, sugars are absorbed more slowly and blood sugar levels do not fluctuate as much. Potentially hypoglycemia (blood sugar that is too low) could occur. Symptoms of low blood sugar may include shakiness, sweating, confusion, distorted speech, and loss of muscle control. If not corrected, low blood sugar can lead to unconsciousness and even death.
Very little information is available on how Baikal scullcap might affect a developing fetus, an infant, or a small child. Therefore, its use is not recommended during pregnancy, breast-feeding, or early childhood.
What side effects should I watch for?
A few reports of liver damage have been associated with taking Baikal scullcap. The individuals involved, however, were taking products that could have been contaminated with other herbal products or chemicals.
Less Severe Side Effects
Baikal scullcap could cause drowsiness.
What interactions should I watch for?
In animal studies, chemicals in Baikal scullcap have been shown to block an enzyme that digests starches from food. As a result, blood sugar levels may be lower than expected. If Baikal scullcap is taken at the same time that insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs are used to control diabetes, the effects of the drugs could be increased. Blood sugar levels could become too low, resulting in a condition called hypoglycemia. Signs of hypoglycemia include shakiness, sweating, confusion, distorted speech, and loss of muscle control. If not corrected, low blood sugar can lead to unconsciousness and even death.
When Baikal scullcap is used with prescription drugs that promote sleepiness, the effects of the drug may be exaggerated, resulting in sedation or mental impairment. Prescription drugs that can cause sleepiness include:
The sleep-producing effects of over-the-counter products containing diphenhydramine can be enhanced by taking Baikal scullcap at the same time. Diphenhydramine is contained in many over-the-counter sleep aids as well as in some cough and cold products, therefore caution should be used when taking these medications with Baikal scullcap because excessive drowsiness may result.
Baikal scullcap may cause excessive sedation if taken with other sedating herbs such as:
No interactions between Baikal scullcap and foods have been reported, but drinking alcohol at the same time as using Baikal scullcap by mouth may result in increased drowsiness.
Some interactions between herbal products and medications can be more severe than others. The best way for you to avoid harmful interactions is to tell your doctor and/or pharmacist what medications you are currently taking, including any over-the-counter products, vitamins, and herbals.
Should I take it?
A species related to but different from the scullcap that grows in North America, Baikal scullcap originated in eastern Asia, where it has been used for centuries to treat infections of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. It is named for the Lake Baikal region of Russia, where it grows abundantly. Today, in Eastern medicine it is most often combined with other herbs to treat prostate cancer.
The part of Baikal scullcap that is used in medicine is the root, which is dug in the fall or spring of the year and then dried. Often the dried root is roasted, much like coffee beans are roasted, to improve the flavor. Plants are allowed to grow for 3 to 4 years before the roots are harvested.
Dosage and Administration
Note: PC-SPES, a combination product that contained Baikal scullcap, has been removed from the U.S. market. It is very important not to take any PC-SPES capsules until they are re-formulated. Please discard any PC-SPES capsules that you might have.
Baikal scullcap is often combined with other herbals. Dosing for Baikal scullcap and the combinition products that contain it varies according to the condition being treated and the combination product being used. If you decide to use it, follow the directions on the package that you purchase.
Most frequently combined with other herbals in a product known as PC-SPES, Baikal scullcap is used to treat prostate cancer. PC-SPES has been recalled in the United States, however, due to contamination with prescription drugs. Therefore, do not take PC-SPES.
Baikal scullcap may also be antifungal, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory. It may be beneficial in treating diabetes and high blood pressure, but these uses need much more study before any of them can be recommended.
Individuals who have diabetes, stomach conditions, or spleen disorders should avoid taking Baikal scullcap. Its use is not recommended for small children, or breast-feeding or pregnant women.
Baikal scullcap could cause drowsiness. In addition, some cases of liver damage have been associated with the use of Baikal scullcap. It is believed, however, that contamination with other substances was involved.
Because it promotes sleepiness, Baikal scullcap can increase the sedation associated with certain prescription drugs, non-prescription drugs, other dietary supplements, and alcohol. It should be used carefully, if at all while drugs for anxiety, colds and coughs, epilepsy, or insomnia are being taken. Many other medications may cause drowsiness, so a doctor or pharmacist should be consulted before Baikal scullcap is taken with any prescription, non-prescription, or herbal product.
Baikal scullcap may have a lowering effect on blood sugar, therefore it may increase the effectiveness of medications used for the treatment of diabetes. If you are taking insulin or oral drugs for diabetes, talk to your doctor or pharmacist before using Baikal scullcap.
Baikal scullcap may have a lowering effect on blood sugar, therefore it may increase the effectiveness of medications or herbals used for the treatment of diabetes. If you are taking insulin or oral drugs for diabetes, talk to your doctor or pharmacist before using Baikal scullcap.
Baylor NW, Fu T, Yan YD, Ruscetti FW. Inhibition of human T cell leukemia virus by the plant flavonoid baicalin (7-glucuronic acid, 5,6-dihydroxyflavone). Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1992;165(3):433-437.
Blaszczyk T, Krzyzanowska J, Lamer-Zarawska E. Screening for antimycotic properties of 56 traditional Chinese drugs. Phytotherapy Research. 2000;14(3):210-212.
Cauffield JS, Forbes HJ. Dietary supplements used in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders. Lippincotts Primary Care Practice. 1999;3(3):290-304.
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. MedWatch Safety Alert: Consumers Warned to Stop Using the Dietary Supplement/Herbal Products PC SPES and SPES. February 8, 2002. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/medwatch/safety/2002/safety02.htm#spes. Accessed April 15, 2003.
de la Taille A, Hayek OR, Buttyan R, et al. Effects of a phytotherapeutic agent, PC-SPES, on prostate cancer: a preliminary investigation on human cell lines and patients. BJU International. 1999;84(7):845-850.
DiPaola RS, Zhang H, Lambert GH, et al. Clinical and biologic activity of an estrogenic herbal combination (PC-SPES) in prostate cancer. New England Journal of Medicine. 1998;339(12):785-791.
Franzblau SG, Cross C. Comparative in vitro antimicrobial activity of Chinese medicinal herbs. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1986;15(3):279-288.
Gao Z, Huang K, Yang X, Xu H. Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of flavonoids extracted from the radix of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta.1999;1472(3):643-650.
Gol'dberg VE, Ryzhakov VM, Matiash MG, et al. Dry extract of Scutellaria baicalensis as a hemostimulant in antineoplastic chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Eksp Klin Farmakol, 1997;60(6):28-30.
Heo HJ, Kim DO, Choi SJ, Shin DH, Lee CY. Potent inhibitory effect of flavonoids in scutellaria baicalensis on amyloid beta protein-induced neurotoxicity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2004;52(13):4128-4132.
Ho NK. Traditional Chinese medicine and treatment of neonatal jaundice. Singapore Medical Journal. 1996;37(6):645-651.
Huang WM, Yan J, Xu J. Clinical and experimental study on inhibitory effect of sanhuang mixture on platelet aggregation. [article in Chinese] Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1995;15(8):465-467.
Hui KM, Wang XH, Xue H. Interaction of flavones from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis with the benzodiazepine site. Planta Medica. 2000;66(1):91-93.
Ishimaru K, Nishikawa K, Omoto T, Asai I, Yoshihira K, Shimomura K. Two flavone 2'-glucosides from Scutellaria baicalensis. Phytochemistry. 1995;40(1):279-281.
Jellin JM, Gregory P, Batz F, Hitchens K, et al, eds. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, 3rd Edition. Stockton CA: Therapeutic Research Facility, 2000.
Konoshima T, Kokumai M, Kozuka M, et al. Studies on inhibitors of skin tumor promotion. XI. Inhibitory effects of flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis on Epstein-Barr virus activation and their anti-tumor-promoting activities. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. (Tokyo) 1992;40(2):531-533.
Kyo R, Nakahata N, Sakakibara I, Kubo M, Ohizumi Y. Effects of Sho-saiko-to, San'o-shashin-to and Scutellariae Radix on intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in C6 rat glioma cells. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 1998;21(10):1067-1071.
Li BQ, Fu T, Yan YD, Baylor NW, Ruscetti FW, Kung HF. Inhibition of HIV infection by baicalina flavonoid compound purified from Chinese herbal medicine. Cellular and Molecular Biology Research. 1993;39(2):119-124.
Liao JF, Wang HH, Chen MC, et al. Benzodiazepine binding site-interactive flavones from Scutellaria baicalensis root. Planta Medica. 1998;64(6):571-572.
Lin CC, Shieh DE. The anti-inflammatory activity of Scutellaria rivularis extracts and its active components, baicalin, baicalein and wogonin. American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 1996;24(1):31-36.
Lu Z. Clinical comparative study of intravenous piperacillin sodium or injection of scutellaria compound in patients with pulmonary infection. [article in Chinese] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1990;10(7):389 and 413-415.
Martin J, Dusek J. The Baikal scullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi)a potential source of new drugs. [article in Czech] Ceska Slovakia Farmacia. 2002;51(6):277-283.
McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, eds. American Herbal Product Associations Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 1997.
Moyad MA, Pienta KJ, Montie JE. Use of PC-SPES, a commercially available supplement for prostate cancer, in a patient with hormone-naive disease. Urology. 1999;54(2):319-328.
Nagai T, Miyaichi Y, Tomimori T, Suzuki Y, Yamada H. In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of plant flavonoids possessing inhibitory activity for influenza virus sialidase. Antiviral Research. 1992;19(3):207-217.
Nagai T, Miyaichi Y, Tomimori T, Suzuki Y, Yamada H. Inhibition of influenza virus sialidase and anti-influenza virus activity by plant flavonoids. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. (Tokyo) 1990;38(5):1329-1932.
Nishioka T, Kawabata J, Aoyama Y. Baicalein, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor from Scutellaria baicalensis. Journal of Natural Products. 1998;61(11):1413-1415.
Pfeifer BL, Pirani JF, Hamann SR, Klippel KF. PC-SPES, a dietary supplement for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. BJU International. 2000;85(4):481-485.
Razina TG, Zueva EP, Amosova EN, Krylova SG. Medicinal plant preparations used as adjuvant therapeutics in experimental oncology. [article in Russian] Ekap Klin Farmakologie. 2000;63(5):59-61.
Regulska-Ilow B, Biernat J, Grajeta H, Ilow R, Drzewicka M. Influence of bioflavonoids from the radix extract of Scutellaria baicalensis on the level of serum lipids, and the development of laboratory rats fed with fresh and oxidized fats. Nahrung. 2004;48(2):123-128.
Shao ZH, Vanden Hoek TL, Li CQ, et al. Synergistic effect of Scutellaria baicalensis and grape seed proanthocyanidins on scavenging reactive oxygen species in vitro. American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2004;32(1):89-95.
Smol'ianinov ES, Gol'dberg VE, Matiash MG, et al. Effect of Scutellaria baicalensis extract on the immunologic status of patients with lung cancer receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy. Eksp Klin Farmakologie. 1997;60(6):49-51.
Tang W, Sun X, Fang JS, Zhang M, Sucher NJ. Flavonoids from Radix Scutellariae as potential stroke therapeutic agents by targeting the second postsynaptic density 95 (PSD-95)/disc large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) domain of PSD-95. Phytomedicine. 2004;11(4):277-284.
Tsao TF, Newman MG, Kwok YY, Horikoshi AK. Effect of Chinese and western antimicrobial agents on selected oral bacteria. Journal of Dental Research. 1982;61(9):1103-1106.
Wong BY, Lau BH, Yamasaki T, Teel RW. Inhibition of dexamethasone-induced cytochrome P450-mediated mutagenicity and metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by Chinese medicinal herbs. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 1993;2(4):351-356.
Yang D, Michel D, Bevalot F, Chaumont JP, Millet-Clerc J. Antifungal activity in vitro of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi upon cutaneous and ungual pathogenic fungi. [article in French] Annales Pharmacie Francais. 1995;53(3):138-141.
Zhang H, Huang J. Preliminary study of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of minimal brain dysfunction: analysis of 100 cases. Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih. 1990;10(5):260 and 278-279.
(Note: The above information is not intended to replace the advice of your physician, pharmacist, or other healthcare professional. It is not meant to indicate that the use of the product is safe, appropriate, or effective for you.)